Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule ...

Unlimited Power

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book shares what made the difference in changing one's life for the better. It incorporates technologies, strategies, skills and philosophies that are empowering to decide the direction of one's life. It is all about taking the kinds of massive, focused, congruent actions that lead to overwhelming results. It teaches a technology that is readily available, a technology that can be used to create the quality of life one desires.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A. Modeling - Modeling is certainly nothing new. Every great inventor has modeled the discoveries of others to come up with something new. Every child has modeled the world around him. If something is possible for the others in the world, it is possible for you. It is not a matter of whether you can produce the results that another person produces; it is a matter of strategy - that is how that person produces the results. If you see anyone in this world producing the results you desire, you can produce the same results if you are willing to pay the price of time and effort. If you want to achieve success, all you need to do is find a way to model those who have already succeeded. That is, finding out what actions they took specifically how they used their brain and body to produce the results you desire to duplicate. If you want to be a better friend, a richer person, a better parent, a better athlete, a more successful businessman, all you need to do is find models of excellence.

 

B. Power - success is the ongoing process of striving to become more. It is the opportunity to continually grow emotionally, socially, spiritually, physiologically, intellectually, and financially while contributing in some positive way to others. The road to success is always under construction. It is progressive, not an end to be reached. Ultimate power is the ability to produce the results you desire most and create value for others in the process. It is the ability to change your life, to shape your perceptions, to make things work for you and not against you. Real power is shared, not imposed. It is the ability to define human needs and fulfill them - both your needs and the needs of the people you care about. It is the ability to direct your own personal kingdom - your own thought processes, your own behavior - so you produce the precise results you desire. Action is what produces results. Knowledge is only a potential power until it comes in to the hands of someone who knows how to get himself to take action.

 

C. State -a state can be defined as the sum of the millions of neurological processes happening within us, in other words, the sum total of our experience at any moment in time. Most of our states happen without any conscious direction on our part. The difference between those who fail to achieve their goals in life and those who succeed is the difference between those who cannot put themselves in a supportive state and those who cannot persistently put themselves in a state that supports them in their achievements. There are two main components of a state. The first is our internal representations, and the second is the condition and use of our physiology. What and how you picture things, as well as what and how you say things to yourself about the situation at hand create the state you are in and thus the kinds of behaviors you produce. The state we are in determines the type of behaviors we produce. Thus to control and direct our states and to control our states, we must control and consciously direct our internal representations and physiology. Nothing is inherently bad or good. Value is how we represent things in a way that puts us in a positive state, or we can do the opposite. The key to representing the results you desire is to represent things in a way that puts you in a resourceful state that you are empowered to take the types and qualities of actions that create your desired outcomes. If you continually focus on all bad things in life, all the things you don't want or all the possible problems, you put yourself in a state that supports those types of behaviors and results. Remember, your behavior is the result of your state, and your state is the result of your internal representations and your physiology, both of which you can change in a matter of moments.

 

D. Belief - As in the words of John Stuart, one person with a belief is equal to a force of ninety - nine who have only interests. Beliefs are the compass and maps that give us the surety to know we'll get there. Without beliefs or the ability to tap in to them, people can totally dis-empowered. They are like a motor boat without a motor or rudder. With power full guiding beliefs, you have the power to take action and create the world you want to live in. Beliefs help you see what you want and energize you to get it. Belief is an internal representation that governs behavior. It can be an empowering belief in possibility - a belief that we will succeed in something or achieve something else. It can be a dis-empowering belief - a belief that we can't succeed, that our limitations are clear, intractable, and overwhelming. If you believe in success, you will be empowered to achieve it. If you believe in failure, those messages will tend to lead you to experience that as well. The birth of excellence begins with the awareness that our beliefs are a choice. If you want to succeed, it would be wise for you to choose your beliefs carefully, rather than walking around like a piece of fly paper, picking up whichever belief sticks. An important thing to realize is that the potentials we tap, the results we get, are all part of a dynamic process that begins with belief.

 

E. Physiology - physiology is the most powerful tool we have for instantly changing states, for instantly producing dynamic results. Physiology and internal representations are totally linked. If you change one, you instantly change the other. If you change your physiology - that is your posture, your breathing patterns, your muscle tension, and your tonality - you instantly change your internal representations and your state. When your physiology runs down, the positive energy of your state runs down. When your physiology brightness and intensifies, your state does the same thing. So physiology is the lever to emotional change. In fact, you can't have an emotion without a corresponding change in physiology. And you can't have a change in physiology without a corresponding change in state. There are two ways to change a state, by changing internal representations or by changing physiology. So if you want to change your state in an instant - what do you do?... You change your physiology - that is your breathing, your posture, your facial expression, the quality of your movement, and so on.

 

F. Rapport - Rapport is the ability to enter someone else's world, to make him feel that you understand him, that you have a strong common bond. It is the ability to go fully from your map of the world to others map of the world. It is the essence of successful communication. No matter what you want in your life, if you can develop rapport with the right people, you will be able to fill their needs, and they will be able to fill yours. Studies of successful people have shown over and over again that they have a great talent for creating rapport. Those who are flexible and attractive in this skill can affect large numbers of people whether as a teacher, a businessman, or a world leader. Rapport is not static; it is not something that remains stable once achieved. It is a dynamic, fluid, flexible process. Just as the key to establishing a truly resonant, lasting relationship is the ability to change and adjust to what someone else is going through, the key to pacing is an ability to elegantly and accurately change gears when someone else does. It is the most accessible skill in the world. You don't need text books, and you don't need courses. You don't need to travel to study at the feet of a master, and you don't need to earn a degree. The only tools you need are your eyes, your ears, your senses of touch, taste and smell.

 

G. Re-framing - Re-framing is changing a negative statement in to a positive one by changing the frame of reference used to perceive the experience. There are two major types of re-frames, or ways to alter our perception about something; context re-framing and content re-framing. Both alter your internal representations by resolving internal pain or conflict, therefore putting you in a more resourceful state. Context re-framing involves taking an experience that seems to be bad, upsetting, or undesirable and showing how the same behavior or experience is actually a great advantage in another context. Content re-framing involves taking the exact same situation and changing what it means. It can also mean actually changing the way we see, hear or represent a situation. There is a valuable lesson in everything that happens. The best leaders are the ones who learn the lesson and put the most empowering frame on outside events. We all know people who are reverse re framers. No matter how bright the silver lining, they can always find a dark cloud. But for every disabling attitude, for every counterproductive behavior, there is an effective re-frame.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

Almost all the concepts in this book seem living with us for the past times, but the problem is that we hadn't memorized it. I am sure; the clarity of concepts in addition to their ease for applicability can shape my personal life and the relationship I have with my surrounding in particular and the world at large.

 

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

''If you look at successful people in any field, you will find they are not necessarily the best and the brightest, the fastest and the strongest. You will find they are the ones with the most commitment.'' Pp 80

 

This quote gives me a confidence to value myself, to be persistent and understand the core reason for the success of many people.

 

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Of course, concepts in chapter ten are a bit complicated

 

6.  Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No,

 

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No,

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            9

B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                           9

D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       9

_______________________________________________________________________

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The seven habits of highly effective people explicitly deals with a holistic, integrated, principle centered approach for solving personal and professional problems. With penetrating insights and pointed anecdotes, the writer reveals a step by step pathway for living with fairness, integrity, service and human dignity, principles that give us the security to adapt to change advantage of the opportunities that change creates. It shows the logical flows through which peoples could benefit themselves and the community around them. It embodies many of the fundamental principles of human effectiveness. The seven habits stated in the book are basic; they are primary. They represent the internalization of correct principles up on which enduring happiness and success are based.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Paradigm – Paradigm is commonly used as a model, theory, perception, assumption, or frame of reference. Each of us has many maps in the world, which can be divided in to two main categories: maps of the way things are, or realities and maps of the way things should be, or values. We interpret everything we experience through these mental maps. We seldom question their accuracy; we usually even unaware that we have them. We simply assume that the way we see things is the way they really are or the way they should be. It is the way we see the world, not in terms of visual sense of sight, but in terms of perceiving, understanding, and interpreting. They are the source of our attitudes and behaviors. We cannot act with integrity outside of them. We simply cannot maintain wholeness if we talk and walk differently than we see. We must look at the lens through which we see the world, as well as at the world we see, and that the lens itself shapes how we interpret the world. The more we are aware of our basic paradigms, maps, or assumptions, and the extent to which we have been influenced by our experience, the more we can take responsibility for those paradigms, examine them, test them against reality, listen to others and be open to their perceptions, thereby getting a larger picture and a far more objective view.

B. Interdependence – we each began life as an infant, totally dependent on others. We are directed, nurtured, and sustained by others. Without this nurturing, we would only live for a few hours or a few days at the most. Then gradually, over the ensuing months and years, we become more and more independent – physically, mentally, emotionally, and financially – until eventually we can essentially take care of ourselves, become inner directed and self reliant. Dependent people need others to get what they want. Independent people can get what they want through their own effort. Interdependent people combine their own efforts with the efforts of others to achieve their greatest success. It is easy to see that independence is much more mature than dependence. Independence is a major achievement in and of itself. But independence is not supreme. True independence of character empowers us to act rather than be acted on. It frees us from our dependence on circumstances and other people and is worthy, liberating goal. But it is not ultimate goal in effective living. Independent thinking alone is not suited to interdependent reality. Independent people who do not have the maturity to think and act interdependently may be good individual producers, but they won’t be good leaders or team player. They are not coming from the paradigm of interdependence necessary to succeed in marriage, family, or organizational reality. Life is, by nature, highly interdependent. To try to achieve maximum effectiveness through independence is like trying to play tennis with a golf club – the tool is not suited to reality.

C. Being Proactive – being proactive is more than merely taking initiative. It means as human beings, we are responsible for our own lives. Our behavior is a function of our decisions, not our conditions. We can subordinate feelings to values. We have the initiative and the responsibility to make things happen. We are by nature, proactive, if our lives are a function of conditioning and conditions, it is because we have, by conscious decision or by default, chosen to empower those things to control us. In making such a choice, we become reactive. Reactive peoples are often affected by their physical environment. If the weather is good, they feel good. If it isn’t, it affects their attitude and their performance. Proactive people can carry their own weather with them. Weather it rains or shines makes no difference to the. They are values driven; and if their value is to produce good quality work, it isn’t a function of whether the weather is conducive to it or not. Reactive people are also affected by their social environment, by the ‘’ social weather.’’ When people treat them well, they feel well; when people don’t, they become defensive or protective. Reactive build their emotional lives around the behavior of others, empowering the weaknesses of other people to control them. The ability to subordinate an impulse to a value is the essence of the proactive person. Reactive people are driven by feelings, by circumstances, by conditions, by their environment. Proactive people are driven by values – carefully thought about, selected and internalized values. Proactive people focus their efforts in the circle of influence. They work on the things they can do something about. The nature of their energy is positive, enlarging and magnifying, causing their circle of influence to increase. Reactive people on the other hand, focus their efforts in the circle of concern. They focus on the weakness of other people, the problems in the environment, and circumstances over which they have no control. Their focus results in blaming and accusing attitudes, reactive language, and increased feelings of victimization. The negative energy generated by that focus, combined with neglect in areas they could do something about, causes their circle of influence to shrink.

D. Center of Life – whatever is at the center of our life will be the source of our security, guidance, wisdom and power, security and clear guidance bring true  wisdom, and wisdom becomes the spark or catalyst to release and direct power. Each of us has a center, though we usually don’t recognize it as such. Neither do we recognize the all encompassing effects that center on every aspect of our lives. It is only by centering our lives on correct principles; we create a solid foundation for development of the four support factors. Principles do not react to anything. They don’t get mad and treat us differently. They won’t divorce us or run away with our best friend. They aren’t out to get us. They can’t pave our way with shortcuts and quick fixes; they don’t depend on the behavior of others, the environment, or the current fad for their validity. Principles don’t die. They aren’t here one day and gone the next. They can’t be destroyed by fire, earthquake or theft. By centering our lives on timeless, unchanging principles, we create a fundamental paradigm of effective living. It is the center that pulls all other centers in perspective.

E. Begin with End in Mind – is to begin today with the image, picture, or paradigm of the end of your life as your frame of reference or the criterion by which everything is else examined. It is to start with the clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you are going so that you better understand where you are now and so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.

F.  Emotional Bank Account – an emotional bank account is the metaphor that describes the amount of trust that is been built up in a relationship. It is the feeling of safeness you have with another human being. A little kindness and courtesies are so important. Small discourtesies, little unkindness, little forms of disrespect make withdrawals. In relationships, the little things are the big things. Keeping a commitment or a promise is a major deposit; breaking one is a major withdrawal.

G. Empathetic Listening – Most people do not listen with the intent to understand, they listen with the intent to reply. They are either speaking or preparing to speak. They are filtering everything through their own paradigms, reading their autobiography in to other people’s lives. Empathetic listening is listening with the intent to understand. It is seeking first to understand, to really understand. In this way your listening gets inside another person’s frame of reference. You look through it, you see the world the way they see the world, you understand their paradigm, and you understand how they feel. It involves more than registering, or even understanding the words that are said.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Even I was unfamiliar with some concepts which are stated above. To tell the truth, since I became familiar to them through the seven habits of highly effective people, I have started to measure my progress against the above stated ideas. Hence, they have helped me to shape the direction of my life.

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

’Peoples can’t live with change if there is not a changeless core inside them. The key to the ability to change is a changeless sense of who you are, what you are about and what you value’’

True indeed, this implies the importance of drivers for change in the life of everybody. Unless there is a reason, or a real factor that initiates a change in one’s life, change is unimaginable.

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6.  Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No, but only application suggestions

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No,

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             10

B. How helpful were its contents?                             10

C. How easy was it to understand?                            10

D. Would you recommend it to others?                     10

E. What is the overall rating you would give it?        10

_______________________________________________________________

Leadership for Dummies 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The writer has tried to state all about what it means by leadership, qualities of leaders, types of leadership and etc. It shows the relationship between leadership and everyday life, leadership and Vision, leadership and team building. It helps to find out what is and what leadership isn't and how to judge your leadership potential and work skills that leaders share. It elaborates the misconceptions about leadership and explores the realities of leadership and how it affects people's everyday life. It takes in through characteristics of leaders' personalities, the different types of leaders, and the different roles that leaders take on to get the job done. In general the book is all about what does it mean by leadership in a general sense.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A. Emotional Connection - Leaders have the ability to inspire people to go beyond what they think they are capable of doing, making it possible for a group to attain a goal that was previously thought unattainable. It begins with the willingness to embrace responsibility. Accepting the responsibilities that you are given isn't enough. You have to be the one who steps forward and says, '' I want to do that''. You can't be a leader if you are afraid of responsibility and accountability. All leaders go through a period of training, of taking on increased responsibilities and increased learning; and no leader rises to the top without the assistance and, sometimes, the patronage of people will give a potential leader the encouragement and opportunities needed for him or her to hone leadership skills. Leadership requires that you listen to the needs of others. But if people tell you they don't need anything from you, then you have no leadership opportunity. If you persist in trying to lead when leadership isn't required, you come to be regarded as a pest or a bore, or worse. It is a must for them to elicit the cooperation of others. To do, they have to listen well, and place the needs of others above their own; they have to have some emotional maturity, wisdom and humility. A high degree of emotional intelligence accounted for 90 percent of the difference between average leaders and star performers, according to studies made by goleman. To be emotionally intelligent, you have to have the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives as well as their effect on others. In addition, you have the ability to control or re direct disruptive impulses, anger, prejudice, stubbornness. It includes the ability to suspend judgment and to think before acting. It also includes a proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and the ability to find common ground and build rapport.

 

B. Team Building - the primary reason that teams are worthwhile and superior to a command system where the top down leader is responsible for everything - is that many hands, and heads, are better than one. Most projects are very complicated, and no one person can hope to master all the details of a single undertaking no matter how smart and how talented he or she is. Team members, by accepting the responsibilities that go along with a part of a team, gain certain rights that don't exist within command structures. When you are a team member, you gain ownership of your work. Ownership can be literal - you and your team are the sole beneficiaries of the output of your work - or it can be figurative, in that you wind up taking great pride in your accomplishments, even though your larger organization benefits. One of the most satisficing aspects of being a leader is developing new leaders. The best way to do that is to, wherever possible; help your team find its own path.

 

C. Communication - A leader has to keep the vision in the minds of his or her followers in every conversation, whether in a spoken or unspoken manner. When a leader is speaking as a leader, and not as a friend or confidante, he or she needs to remind people in a simple and straight forward manner and without a lot of additional explanation why they are being asked to turn the vision in to reality. The responsibility of leadership is to communicate the vision so clearly that no room is left for doubt among those who must execute it. A good speaker almost invariably is someone who can listen to or read the mood or tenor of an audience, even when the audience is not communicating verbally. Good speakers and communicators can sense nervousness, restlessness, or hostility among a group, and they learn to use the mood of the crowd to their own advantage.

 

D. Leading other than Managing - Many people considers that leadership and Management are the same. But, the two are completely different. Leadership sets the style and tone for achieving a vision and motivates people to sacrifice for the attainment of the vision. Management is the tactical process of executing and achieving the mission. Management's concerns lie with the details and the day to day grind without which a vision can't become a reality. Sometimes leaders are mistaken for managers. Leaders are leading well all the time, but the success of their leadership is attributed to a good management model. Management is all about doing things right whereas leadership is doing the right things. Leadership is all about designing a new path to success of an organization where as management is about using the predesigned root to yield results. Leaders ask what and why questions, not the how questions. They think about empowerment, not control. Managers work with processes, models, and systems - things. But leaders must work with people and their emotions.

 

E. Volunteering - volunteering weather you are the leader of a volunteer activity or just a member for a group, is a form of leadership. It starts with the requirement that you place the needs of others above your own. To be an effective volunteer, you have to develop your listening skills so that you can give others what they really need rather than just what you think you are capable of giving. You definitely have to be able to elicit the cooperation of others because volunteering isn't mandatory. You can volunteer for literally millions of activities, so choosing how you are going to give to the community can often be difficult. Volunteering can be made in three different ways. The First is through head volunteering, an activity that engages in mind. The second, Heart Volunteering is an activity that engages the emotions. It is doing well to the common cause and sees the improvement of others. Third is hearth volunteering that base on the idea that, if everybody spends some time improving his/her immediate surroundings, the world will become a better place.

 

F. Developing a Vision - if you think leadership as the point of an arrow, then the vision is the target to be hit. A vision is a doable dream based on the realities of a group's strengths and resources that links the present to the future. It reminds everyone why they are members of your group, and why they are struggling. It tells people that, no matter what happens, their struggle is worthwhile. A vision should be both simple and straight forward. People who are asked to help turn a vision in to reality should be able to understand what the vision is, without a lot of additional explanation, and should have an innate sense that the vision is doable even before they begin to explore what is necessary to actually make it so. A vision is not short term. It is something that will carry you through the achievement of several short term goals, to achieve some sort of enduring greatness or distinction, something for which your group or enterprise will be known and remembered.

 

G. Active Citizenship - there comes a time in your life when you don't like what is going on in the community around you. It doesn't matter what sets you off. It could be the neigbours dog - or more likely the neighbor who walks the dog and doesn't clean up after it - it could be kids smoking on the corner, the fact that the local community has neglected its parks, or the upsurge in graffiti on the buildings around you. Active citizenship is practiced and developed by people coming together to organize for a cause. It begins when you decide that the line between public life and your own private life is arbitrary, and that if you don't take some action, nobody will. It is one thing to watch television and complain about how unfair things are. It is something quite different to pick up your phone and call a friend to discuss what you heard on television, and is yet another step forward to begin to think about organizing. Expressing concern about a problem is the equivalent of recognizing and reacting to a problem.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

As I am a student of Leadership and Good governance, I had a basic understanding of leadership concepts. However, what is stated in leadership for dummies is far more elaborative and shows me many new things about the subject. Leadership is all about living a life of peace, tranquility and prosperity. It is all about living for others. As stated in the above principles, to lead you have to know some basic issues. So that in the future, I am sure these concepts can help me to become an effective leader

 

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

''You become free by acting free. The same is true of leading. You become a leader by acting like a leader. You don't need the title or authority. You only need to be willing to embrace responsibility, to be able to elicit cooperation from people, listen to their needs and then place those above your own.'' Pp. 153

 

This quote is important in that it encourages me to assume responsibility and accountability in my life. It equips me to think that I am always a leader and that I don't need a position to be a leader.

 

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6.  Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No,

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No,

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10

B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10

D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

____________________________________________________________

Maximum Achievement

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main aim of the writer in this book is to provide a unique synthesis of ideas, methods, and techniques brought together in one place to help the readers integrate these ideas in to their daily life. The book shows how to unlock the untapped reserves of potential that lie deep within you. It stresses and briefly discusses about the ingredients of real success in life. A major benefit of this book is that it shows you how to be your own psychologist. It helps to understand how to achieve and maintain a positive, optimistic and cheerful mental attitude under almost all circumstances. It also allows you to develop a fully integrated, full

functioning, fully mature personality.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A.  Success - success is not something that anyone can achieve it easily. It requires a lot of ingredients. First you have to live in harmony with your highest values and your inner most convictions, second, health and energy, third, relationship you have with the people you love and care about, and the people who love and care about you. Most of your happiness and unhappiness in life comes from your relationships with others that make you truly human. Fourth is financial freedom, fifth, worthy goals and ideals. Happiness has been defined as the progressive realization of a worthy ideal. You can only be happy when you are working step by step toward something that is really important to you. The other one is self knowledge and self awareness where as the last is personal fulfilment.

B. Self concept – yourself concept is your bundle of beliefs about yourself and about every part of your life and your world. It is the master program of your subconscious computer. There is a direct relationship between how well you do anything and yourself concept in that area. You perform as well as you believe yourself capable of performing.. You are as effective as you believe yourself to be in whatever you do. You can never be better or different on the outside than you believe yourself to be on the inside. You have a an overall self concept for how competent you are in your field and for how much money you are capable of earning. You can never rise much higher than your self concept level of income. Your self - concept is made up of three parts that includes self ideal, self image and self esteem.

C. Goal – It is not possible to realize even a fraction of your potential until you have learned how to set and achieve goals as normally and as naturally as you brush your teeth or comb your hair in the morning. Goals are the fuel in the furnace of achievement. A person without goal is like a ship without a rudder, drifting aimlessly and always in danger of ending up on the rocks. A person with goals is like a ship with a rudder, guided by a captain with a map, a compass, and a destination, sailing straight and true toward a port of his own choosing. There are several reasons why people do not set goals. These includes lack of being serious, denial to accept responsibility, deep- seated feelings of of guilt and unworthiness, unable to understand the worthiness of goals, lack of knowledge as to how to prepare goals, fear of rejection and criticism and fear of failure.

D. Love - Success is defined as a composite or blend of different ingredients. Each of these ingredients is affected by the amount of love that a person has within himself or herself and towards the rest of the world. You have peace of mind to the degree to which you love yourself and love others. You have high levels of health and energy to degree to which you experience self love, self acceptance and the love and acceptance of others. You have loving relationships to the extent to which you love yourself and express your love toward others. Love teaches us the principle of non resistance. When you respond to anger and negativity with love and kindness, you not only perceive your own emotional integrity and maintain a positive mental attitude, but you also help the other person. There is nothing that so surprise a person as to have someone whom they are mistreating respond to them with gentleness, courtesy and kindness. It frees him/her to stop the critical behaviour and become a better person.

E. Forgiveness – Forgiveness is the most powerful and practical principle ever thought to build happiness, health, prosperity and wonderful relationship with others.. You can be mentally health to the exact degree to which you can freely forgive and forget offenses against you. The inability to forgive causes diseases that run the entire gamut from simple headaches to heart attacks, cancer and strokes. There are three people in your life that you need to forgive to free yourself from negative feelings of guilt, inferiority, inadequacy, under servingness, resentment and anger. The first are your parents, the second is everyone else where as the third is yourself. You are not perfect. You make mistakes. You say and do a lot of foolish things in the course of growing and maturing. Forgiveness is the key to kingdom of mental and spiritual development. When you practise being a totally forgiving person, you are emulating the character traits of the greatest men and women who have ever walked the earth. It is the key to the kingdom of inner peace, the hardest thing you ever do, and the most important.

F. Constructive Criticism – The whole purpose of criticism, if you must give it, is performance improvement. It is to help the other person to be better as result. Constructive criticism is not done for revenge. It is not a vehicle to express your displeasure or anger. Its purpose is to help, not hurt, or you should refrain from using it all. It includes protecting individuals self esteem at all costs, focusing on the future not the past, focus on the behaviour or the performance, get agreement on what is to change , and when, and by how much and etc.

G. Change – Anybody may want to change the direction of his life. To do so there are basic things everybody ahs to know, first, you must sincerely want to change. You must really want to become totally positive toward yourself and your possibilities. You must have an intense, burning desire to be more than you have ever been before. Second, you must be willing to change. Many people say they want to change, but in their hearts, they are not really willing to give up the old life, the old associations and everything else that goes with them. Third, you must be willing to make efforts. You must be willing to persevere for a long time without much evidence of progress.

3.  How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

By teaching me to understand how real success and maximum achievement could be realized and what elements are needed to be incorporated to ensure achievement of my goal in easy and applicable manner.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘In the entire history of human race, there never has been, and never will be, anyone just like you. The odds that another person with your unique combination of characteristics and qualities will ever be born are more than 5o billion to one. You have the potential to do something special, even extra ordinary with your life, something that one else can do.’

Pp 60

Surely indeed this quote makes me to think in a new and different way. Something comes to my mind that, as I am unique, I can do something special and unique.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

Yes

7.Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

__________________________________________________________

Law of Attraction

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The writer aims at showing with clear examples that whatever a person attracts to his/her life, what he/she gives attention to exert energy and focus to whether positive or negative will become his/her reality. It encourages learning how to use the law of attraction to get more of what you want and less of what you don’t. It illustrates with brief examples and tools how this can be true and how the principle could be applied everywhere.

2.  What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Vibration – is a feeling that’s used to describe a mood or a feeling that you pick up from someone or something. Every single moment you have a mood or feeling. In this moment right now the mood or feeling you are experiencing is causing you emit or send out a negative or positive vibration. The law of attraction responds to whatever vibration you are sending by giving you more of it, whether it is positive or negative. It simply responds to your vibration. So that you have to take care of the vibration you have as it may result in bad consequence in your life. The more you try to positively respond to whatever happens to you, the more your life will flourish and your mentality cultivate a fruit of prosperity and development.

B. Words – words are everywhere. We speak them, read them, write them, think them, see them, type them and hear them in our head. The words we thinks and use generate the vibration we send out, whether it is positive or negative. Your thoughts as well are made up of words, and these thoughts will result in feelings. Even you can reset your vibration from negative to positive by simply choosing different words and different thoughts. It’s as easy as asking yourself ‘’ so, what do I want?’’. Many people focus on what they don’t want instead of focusing on what they exactly want. As the words of negativity such as don’t, not and no become your habit, your mentality inclines to focusing always on the disempowering direction. Just follow each day the words you use, the way you respond to others sayings as well. The more your words are positive and empowering, the more you can gain what you want.

C. Timing – the law of attraction doesn’t remember what vibration you were sending out five minutes ago, five days ago, five months ago or fifty years ago. It’s only responding to the vibration you are sending out right now in this very moment and give you more of the same. The moment you face difficulty or fall in thinking that worries you a lot, you have to respond in a way that reduces the stress that emanates from the situation. Unless, as the law of attraction works exactly on what is going on at the moment, you have to keep in to consideration that timing is very crucial.

D. Deliberate Attraction – you can deliberately attract through three step formula where you identify your desire, give your desire attention and allow it. One might not exactly understand what he /she wants so that he/she can easily use contrast to identify them. Contrast is anything you don’t like, doesn’t feel good, or causes you to be in negative mood. By observing contrast and identifying it as something you don’t want, you become clearer about what you don’t want. By this it is needed to say that, as some people may not easily identify what they exactly want instead what they don’t want, they can list all the things they don’t want in one category and replace it with the exact reverse to gain what they exactly want.

E.  Attention – it is not enough to merely identify your desire; you must also give it positive attention, energy and focus to. If you, however identify your desire, and don’t give it attention, energy and focus then there is manifestation. Some people are good at identifying their desires and then they tuck their list of desires away and never give it attention again. The law of attraction can only respond to what you are giving your attention to. You may merely need many things in life and talk them always, but unless you have a real desire and commit yourself towards that you may not give attention to it. As Wayne dyer said in his book, real magic when the student is ready, and the teacher will always be there, it shows how much giving attention to something through showing readiness is important to change oneself and learn easily. As many authors said it in their books, whatever a man gives attention to, commit itself towards its attainment can surely realize it. In addition, one can attract to itself something that he/she aspires for and gives real attention to.

F. Appreciation and Gratitude – attitude and gratitude helps you to send out strong and positive vibrations. When you are appreciating something you are offering a feeling and vibration of pure joy. Think of a time when you expressed thanks for someone in your life. The feelings you experienced were positive. When you purposely take time to appreciate everyday you are intentionally offering strong, positive vibrations, and including those vibrations in your vibrational bubble. Take time to appreciate anything. It is the feeling that’s attached to your appreciation that’s important. The moment you appreciate the efforts of others, you see on their face that something shines out. These shining will be reflected by to you where you can easily share the happiness. True indeed, real happiness will be obtained by appreciating what you have to appreciate and recommend positively what has to be corrected. As you do so, you practise releasing positive and strong vibrations that will result in joy and development of positive mental attitude.

G. Expression – The way we express things is something that we undervalue many times, but it is very crucial in our life. You don’t imagine if you express a wonderful thing in a silly manner and face devastating result in your life. Instead of using negative and dis empowering words in your speech, use an expression that benefits you a mentality that is confident in gaining what you desire. Sometimes it is hard to believe that you will get what you desire. This is especially true if you are focusing on the fact that you haven’t reached your goal. When you catch yourself saying you don’t have something yet, stop and instead say I am in the process of attracting... In addition you can also use the expression, I have decided... and Lots can happen so that these words will attract the same in your life. A simple adjustment in the way you express things will change many things..

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

As we can see them all, though the concepts are simple, I believe that their impact both in my life and others is for sure significant. The concepts in this book might be what we hear each day and time, but what matters is how much we are using it. As they are easy to understanding and implementation, I hope they can help me attract good things by giving emphasis to these concepts which in turn will change my life.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’Positive and negative emotions cannot occupy your mind at the same time. One or the other must dominate. It is your responsibility to make sure that positive emotions constitute the dominating influence of your mind’’

Napoleon Hill, PP 25

I believe that this quotation has great importance for me as it asserts that one cannot compromise and fool himself by mixing both emotions.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                                        10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                                       10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

____________________________________________________

Non Violent Communication

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main idea that the writer is trying to convey in this book is the significance and necessity of non violent communication in our relationship with human beings. The book shows how Non Violent Communication helps us to connect with each other and ourselves in a way that allows our natural compassion to flourish. It guides us to reframe the way we express ourselves and listen to others by focusing our consciousness. Non violence as explained in the words of Arun Ghandi is allowing the positive within you to emerge, be dominated by love, respect, understanding, respect,  appreciation, compassion and concern for others rather than the self centred and selfish, greedy, hateful, prejudiced, suspicious and aggressive attitudes that dominate our thinking. It shows the true paths to become interpersonal, interactive, beloved man/women in life.

2.What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Giving from the Heart – when we give from the heart, we do so out of the joy that springs forth whenever we willingly enrich another person’s life. This kind of giving benefits both the giver and receiver. The receiver enjoys the gift without worrying about the consequences that accompany gifts given out of fear, guilt, shame or desire for gain. To arrive at a mutual desire to give from the heart, we focus the light of consciousness on four areas which is referred to as the four components of the Non violent communication model. These includes, the concrete actions we observe that affect our wellbeing, how we feel in relation to what we observe, the needs, values, desires, etc that create our feelings and the concrete actions we request in order to enrich our lives.

B. Observation without evaluation – The Indian philosopher J.Krishnamurti once remarked that observing without evaluating is the highest form of human intelligence. The first component of non violent communication entails the separation of observation from evaluation. We need to clearly observe what we are seeing, hearing, or touching without affecting our sense of wellbeing without mixing in any evaluation. When we combine observation with evaluation, we decrease the likelihood that others will hear our intended message. Instead they are apt to hear criticism and thus resist whatever you are saying. Many of us jump to evaluate and judge others even before we finish our observation. The moment we realize that our evaluation and judgment is wrong, we criticize our self. This has an impact on your judgmental ability and confidence. So, it is very crucial to view both observation and evaluation in isolation and be patient in till fact is disclosed.

C. Taking Responsibility for our feelings – Non violent communication heightens our awareness that what others say and do may be stimulus, but never be the cause, of our feelings. When someone gives us a negative message, whether verbally or non-verbally, we have four options as to how to receive it (blaming ourselves, blaming others, sense our own feelings and needs and sense others feelings and needs). Each time we speak, the clearer we are about what we want back the more likely we are to get it. Since the message we send is not always the message that’s received, we need to learn how to find out if our message has been accurately heard. Especially when we are expressing ourselves in our group, we need to be clear about the nature of the response we are wanting.

D. Empathy – empathy is a respectful understanding of what others are experiencing. The Chinese philosopher Chuang – Tzu stated that true empathy requires listening with the whole being. The hearing that is only in the ears is one thing. The hearing of the understanding is another. But the hearing of the spirit is not limited to anyone faculty, to the ear, or to the mind. Hence it demands the emptiness of all the faculties. And when the faculties are empty, then the whole being listens. There is then a direct grasp of what is right there before you that can never be heard with the ear or understand with the mind.’’ We need empathy to give empathy. When we sense ourselves being defensive or unable to empathize, we need to, stop, breathe, give ourselves empathy, scream non-violently and take time out.

E. Expressing anger fully – we can never be angry because of what someone else did. We can identify the other person’s behavior as the stimulus, but it is important to establish a clear separation between stimulus and cause. Even if we are not initially conscious of it, the cause of anger is located in our thinking. We use our language in many different ways to trick ourselves in to believing that our feelings result from what others do. The cause of anger lies in our thinking in thoughts of blame and judgment. As we blame and judge others, even we may not have a room to express our anger in front of others. Sometimes people become angry in the situation and want not to express it at the moment. This results them to think and worry about passed issues and feel uncomfortable. So it is very essential for anybody to express once anger fully and right at the moment.

F. Librating Ourselves and Counselling Others – things that limit us as human beings, whether from well intentioned parents, teachers, clergy or others are preliminarily related to our thinking. When peoples express their needs, they are often labelled as selfish, and the use of the personal pronoun I as at times equated with selfishness or needlessness. When we have a judgmental dialogue going on within, we become alienated from what we need and cannot then act to meet those needs. Depression is the indicative of alienation from our own needs. The ability to hear our own feelings and needs and empathize with them can free us from depression so that focusing on what we want to do rather than what went wrong is very essential.

G. Expressing and Receiving Appreciation in NVC – it is very important to express appreciation to celebrate, not to manipulate. There are three basic components of appreciation. These include the actions that have contributed to our wellbeing, the particular needs of ours that have been fulfilled and the pleasureful feelings engendered by the fulfilment of those needs. If you want to ensure that appreciation has been fully received, it is valuable to develop the eloquence to express all three components verbally. For many of us it is difficult to receive appreciation gracefully. We flirt over whether we deserve it or not. We worry about what is being expected of us – especially if we have teachers or managers who use appreciation as a means to spur our productivity. Or we are nervous about living up to the appreciation. Paradoxically, despite unease in receiving appreciation, most of us yearn to be genuinely recognized and appreciated.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Communication is vital for human being. Especially such type of communication where there is no violence in it has invaluable lesson for young and developing leaders like me.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’The more faithfully you listen to the voice within you, the better you will hear what is happening outside’’ Dag Hammarskold

This quote gives me an advice that, my inner part needs to be given attention and emphasis. So that the more I can hear my inner, the more I can develop courage to listen what is in the external world.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

Yes

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read?                             10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                                        10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                                       10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.   What is the overall rating you would give it?      10

________________________________________________________________

Goals

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book is all about the importance of goals and how much it is essential to write down your goals, make plans to achieve them and work on your plans every single day. It explicitly states that success is goals and all others are commentary. Time and life are precious. The biggest waste of time and life is to spend years accomplishing something that you could have achieved only in a few months due to lack of goal. It gives a proven system that you can use to move on to the fast truck in your own life.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Worst Enemies – The greatest enemies of success and happiness are negative emotions of all kinds. Negative emotions hold you down, tire you out, and take away all your joy in life. The negative emotions of fear, self – piety, envy, jealousy, feelings of inferiority, and ultimately anger are mostly caused by four factors. The first is stopping justification

B.  Values – One of the most important characteristics of leaders, and of the most successful people in every area of life, is that they know who they are, what they believe in, and what they stand for. Life is lived from inside out. The very core of your personality is your values. Your values are what make you the person you are. Everything you do on the outside is dictated and determined by your values on the inner side, the more precise and effective will be your actions outside. Your values determine your beliefs about yourself and the world around you. If you have positive values, such as love, compassion, and generosity, you will believe that people in your world are deserving of these values and you will treat them accordingly. Your beliefs in turn determine your personality, your expectations. If you believe yourself to be a good person, you will expect good things to happen to you. Your expectation grows to your attitude where as these finally develops in to your actions.

C. Determination of True Goals – Humans achieve goals automatically as long as they set them in the first place. Once you become clear about what you want and then discipline yourself to do more of those things that move you toward this goal, your ultimate success is virtually guaranteed. In setting goals, we have to know that goals must be clear, specific, detailed and written down. They must be measurable and objective, time bounded with schedules, deadlines and sub deadlines. They are also needed to be challenging, congruent with your values and in harmony with each other, balanced among your career or business, your financial life, your family, your health, your spiritual life and your community involvement. In addition you must have a major definite purpose for your life. You must have one goal that, if you accomplish it, can do more to help you improve your life than any other single goal.

D. Become an Expert In your field – One quality of the most successful people is that at a certain point in their careers they decided to ‘’ commit to excellence’’. They decided to be the best at what they do. They decided to pay any price, make any sacrifice, and invest any amount of time necessary to become very good in their chosen fields. No one is better than you and no one is smarter than you. People are just better or smarter in different areas. There are no limits to what you can accomplish, except for the limits that you place on your own mind and imagination. If you decide to be excellent in your field, nothing on the earth can stop you from getting there, except yourself. Be sure, in most areas of life, it is hard work and dedication than natural ability and talent that lead to excellence and great success.

E. Measuring Progress – As Jean De La Bruyere said, ‘there is no road too long to the man who advances deliberately and without undue haste; there are no honours too distant to the man who prepares himself for them with patience.’ Setting goals alone is not a sufficient tool to realize it. You need to focus and work hard towards the three keys to performance. These include commitment, completion and closure. When you make a firm commitment to achieve a particular goal, and you put aside all excuses, its very much like stepping on the accelerator of your subconscious mind. You must continually force yourself, discipline yourself, to resist this natural tendency and push through to completion. Every time you complete a task of any kind, your brain releases a small quantity of endorphin. This natural morphine like compounds gives you a sense of well being and elation. They make you feel happy and peaceful. They stimulate your creativity and improve your personality. Everyone wants to feel like a winner. And feeling like a winner requires that you win. You get the feeling of a winner by completing a task 100 percent.

F. Remove Red blocks – Successful people fail far more often than unsuccessful people. They try many things, fall down, pick themselves up, and try again – over and over again before they finally win. Unsuccessful people try a few things, if they try at all, and very soon quit and go back to what they were doing before. Henry ford once said, ‘Failure is merely an opportunity to more intelligently begin again.’ Successful people think about solutions most of the time whereas unsuccessful people think about problems and difficulties most of the time. Solution oriented people are constantly looking for ways to get over, around, and past the obstacles that stand in their way. Problem – oriented people talk continuously about their problems, who or what caused them, how unhappy or angry they are. The two major obstacles to success and achievement are fear and doubt. It is first of all the fear of failure, poverty, loss, embracement, or rejection that holds most people back from trying in the first place.  Doubt our own abilities. We compare ourselves unfavourably to others and think that others are somehow better, smarter and more competent than we are. We feel inadequate and inferior to the challenges of achieving the great goals that we so much want to accomplish.

G. Persistence – every great success in your life will represent triumph of persistence. Your ability to decide what you want, to begin, and then to persist through all obstacles and difficulties until you achieve your goals is the critical determinants of your success. And the flip side of persistence is courage. Ann landers, syndicated columnist wrote, ; if I were asked to give what I consider the single most useful bit of advice for all humanity, it would be this; expect trouble as an inevitable part of life, and when it comes hold your head high. Look it squarely in the eye and say, ; I will be bigger than you. You cannot defeat me’. All intelligent people are afraid of something. It is normal and natural to be concerned about your physical, emotional, and financial survival. The courageous and persistent person is not a person who is unafraid. As mark twin said,’ courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear – not absence of fear’. The most important demonstration of self discipline is your level of persistence when your going gets tough. Persistence is self discipline in action. It is the true measure of human character. It is in fact the real measure of your belief in yourself and your ability to succeed. It is one of the common qualities of the ever successful men and women in history.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

As they are simple, easy to implement, I believe they can help me sit down and determine my future.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’To achieve something that you have never achieved before, you must become someone you have never been before’’

I always say to myself that I have to be changed and achieve many things in life. However, that was only a mere talk. Other than thinking, I didn’t work towards it. What I see in this quotation is that if a man needs to achieve something new and important in his/her life, he needs to be new him/her self.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

Yes

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

8. Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A.      How interesting was it to read?                                    10
B.      How helpful were its contents?                                    10
C.      How easy was it to understand?                                   10
D.      Would you recommend it to others?                            10
E.       What is the overall rating you would give it? 10

___________________________________________________________

The New Dynamics of Winning

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book deals with enabling the reader how he/she can learn the process of winning by developing all the resources of his/her mind and body to the fullest. It takes on place the experiences of many champions affirming that winners were one day a beginners. Several important ingredients of winning; the drive to win, commitment, the Olympian within, integrity, visualization of victory, self confidence and self transformation, strength through mental toughness, coach ability  and leadership quality are clearly described in the book. They are all illustrated with examples of some of the champion in the athletic arena.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A.  Stair stepping - refers to taking a big goal and breaking it down in to smaller components. By setting lower level goals - ones that are measurable and relatively easier to reach - it is easier to make correction you get off target. If you tried to eat an entire steak in one mouthful, you'd choke. But by cutting it in to smaller, bite sized pieces, it is digestible and enjoyable. Achieving goals step by step also builds your confidence. While smaller, the successes are experienced more often. This provides the positive feedback and reinforcement necessary for achieving any big goal. Maximum success is built up on mini goals. Any goal can be achieved, but first it must be broken down in to a series of sub goals. Each smaller goal should lead you, one day at a time to your larger life goal.

 

B. Paying the Price - The commitment to paying the price is a key quality in mind of a champion. You could even say that if success has an entry fee; the cost is total commitment. As stated by the writer, paying the price of success for most of us seems like paying the United States national debt. It appears overwhelming for us to invest in ourselves the amount of time and effort required for peak performance. Too often, we believe our own physical and environmental limitations are unique and much greater than those of gifted champions. Most of our hurdles in life are self imposed limitations that can be overcome if we never, ever give up on ourselves.

 

C. Self Esteem - self esteem is made up of both self worth and self trust. Self worth is simply the feeling of being glad that you are you, with your genes, your body, and your background. Self trust is the functional belief in your own ability positively and effectively to control what happens to you in a world of uncertainty. Remember that no eyes will ever critique a video of you, a photo of you, a reflection of you in a window, as sharply as critically as your own eyes. Make an effort to feel good about your physical self, including how you look, how you dress, and how you think. Realize that you can be your own worst enemy or your own best friend. Self esteem or lack of it, in general is at the root of all behavior; both positive and negative.

 

D. Silent Approval - people today, especially young people, need far fewer critics and far better role models. By setting an example of honesty, consistency, and commitment in all your relationships, you can create a kind of wealth for yourself and your family that is of much greater value than fame and fortune as we usually understand it. Silent approval occurs when authority figures -whether they are heads of families or leaders of companies -look the other side way when actions conflict with their stated principles. Don't tell your children, your peers, or your peers or your subordinates what to do. Show them by doing it yourself. Talk is never enough, even when you are speaking the truth. When you promise something, do people believe it will really happen, or is there a question of whether you really mean it?

 

E. Integrity - Integrity implies an understanding that people can trust you to do what you say you will do. Having a power is like drinking salt water. The more you consume, the thirstier you get. No matter how much wealth or recognition the world lays at your feet, don't allow your personal integrity to be contradicted by your behavior in any area of your life. It is not just a matter of preserving your reputation. It is a matter of living a life with character. There is a lesson for all of us in the scandals of our public figures. You truly cannot separate your personal life from your professional life. You bring the same person to your place of business and home again. Integrity is non situational and it is absolute.

 

F. Visualization of Victory - visualization works because the mind reacts automatically to the information it receives in the form of feelings, words and sensory experiences, such as sight, taste and touch. The mind can't tell the difference between a real experience and one that has been vividly and repeatedly imagined. By mentally rehearsing the perfect accomplishment of your goals, you create a neurological pathway that allows your muscles to repeat those actions. Seeing leads to believing and believing leads to achieving.

 

G. Coach ability - coachable performers accept the role of authority figures. Respect and trust for authority, however doesn't mean blind submission and robot like conformity. The coachable champion trusts his or her own judgment as well as the decision of designated leaders. They have a healthy personal Impulse toward self direction and freedom of interpretation. This means he or she enjoys innovation, and has the capacity to form new or different opinions from those held by other people. They have also high tolerance for order and organization. And generally, all great coaches were themselves very coachable and are orderly and organized individuals who habitually plan a head and who are naturally oriented toward the future. They don't replay yesterday's game in their heads; they prefer to focus on the games yet to be played.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

The Ideas stated in this book are very important in that they can be easily understandable to be applied in everyday life. All the ideas stated in each chapter are very essential in steeping up towards winning. The examples mentioned in the book are motivating enough towards reaching one's own life objectives. They show important ingredients in life that are necessary to become a champion.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

'' You don't have to know everything, as long as you know people who know the things you don't…'' pp 187

From this I quote, it can be easy to understand the importance of giving recognition to your environment. It requires commitment to subordinate your own ego for the good of the team. Authentic leaders ask, listen and learn. Rather than considering oneself as a knower of everything, valuing importance of others knowledge has a great return. So, this explicitly shows that no matter how far you fail to know everything, it has no problem if peoples around you know it as you can learn from them, and vice versa.

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

No

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             9

B. How helpful were its contents?                             10

C. How easy was it to understand?                            9

D. Would you recommend it to others?                     9

E. What is the overall rating you would give it?        9.25 

___________________________________________________________________________

Real Magic

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book shows the reader how to create miracles in life. It illustrates with many examples how to create what you may have previously thought to be impossible in your life. Its lessons show that you are capable of achieving perfect equilibrium of the mind if commitment is added to one's own inner transformation. The book more specifically deals with explaining the importance of spirituality and invisible self. It explains that man is more than what he sees and understands in his five senses. It is if and only if he/she worked and goes in line with his/her invisible self that he/she could gain the most out of life.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A. Enlightenment - the quoted that every successful, truly happy person that I have encountered has confirmed their knowing that there simply are no accidents. They see the universe as all purposeful, including the so-called accidents. All agree that every unique happening in our lives leads to a higher place. Life's journey is envisioned by the writer as a journey with three ascending paths. The first is enlightenment through suffering, the pattern of growth for many places where events occur, suffering takes place, and then the light appears. The second is enlightenment through outcome, a stage at which you ask God, Why me God?, you develop a knowing that says, there are no accidents, everything I am experiencing is in some way necessary for me to move ahead to the next step. Rather than asking the why me questions, you begin to ask, what is in this experience that I can use in a beneficial way, even if  I don't understand why it is happening right now?. Here you ask yourself, how can I create the outcome that I want with this illness that I am presently experiencing? Or what I can learn about myself and how much strength can I muster to deal effectively with this problem. The third is enlightenment through purpose that explains the importance of a purpose in life. It describes that nothing is more likely to help a person overcome or endure troubles than the consciousness of having a task in life. It reveals the very importance of having a purpose in life indicating that the glorious masterpiece of man is how to live with purpose.

 

B. Readiness to Learn - here the ancient Zen proverb, when the student is ready the teacher will appear. When you are truly determined in your own mind to experience real magic and to live each day at purpose, you will be shown how to make it happen. When you know in your heart that every single person you encounter in your life time has something to reach you, you are able to utilize their offerings in a profound way. When you are a student who is ready, the stranger who talks to you about how he overcome his addiction years ago becomes a guide sent to you cope with your own personal addiction. The assistance you need will be provided by the universe as soon as you convert your readiness to willingness. Once you are willing you will find teachers in every niche of your life.

 

C. Spirituality - Miracles cannot be understood by the rational mind. They defy logic. They cannot be understood in the ways we have been conditioned to think. Therefore, in order to understand the world of real magic you will need to learn how to go way beyond your rational mind and enter the dimension of spirituality. The wonderful gift of religion is the teaching that we are spiritual in nature, and that we all have a soul as part of our humanity. The place for creating real magic will be in your spiritual awakening, yet it will be manifested here and now in this physical world where you find yourself every day. You have the capacity to create miracles and live a life of real magic, by using your invisible self to influence your physical reality. When you truly become a spiritual being first and a physical being second, and know how to live and breathe in this new alignment, you will become your own miracle worker. When you examine the lives of the most influential people who ever walked among us, you discover one thread that winds through them all. They have been aligned first with their spiritual nature and only then with their physical selves. A spiritual being is comfortable with the idea of having teachers, observers and divine guidance available at any time. The spiritual being sees the physical world as an arena for growth and learning with the specific purpose of serving and evolving in to higher levels of love. Once you no longer need to dominate others, to acquire more possessions or to control the environment around you, you will have shifted your focus from external power to personal empowerment. You will find that being personally empowered does not reduce you to wimp hood and being the victim of others in any way.

 

D. Vision - Learning to act as if the miracle you seek in your mind is already here gives you a big head start on this phenomenon world of real magic. When you have a vision and you act as if that vision were already here, you create not only the necessary expertise, but you literally become your own miracle worker. If you believe that you could never head up such an undertaking because you don't have the necessary training, credentials, experience, or whatever, then that is what you will act up on. Being to act as if you were that expert, even if you have to fool yourself in the beginning. If you have enough belief in yourself, and you are ready, the teacher will appear and you will plunge right in and create the credential that you will need to get the job completed. By becoming aware of the poisons in your life, and using your invisible miracle-mind to create what you truly want and know you deserve, you will find yourself living in harmony. You will experience in your physical world precisely what is that you think you are entitled to create. Inventory your life and get in to purpose.

 

E. Giving - Rather than asking something of others, try giving instead. Become the giver, even if what you give is simply the radiance of love and unconditional acceptance that you are feeling within. It is the giver, not the taker who is the true miracle worker and ironically, it is the one who is focused on giving as his or her purpose in life who seems to receive so much more than those who are always looking for more. Expect no appreciation and allow those you meet to be what they need to be. To be authentically powerful, you must not reside in how others react to you, nor exclusively in your physically strength or appearance.

 

F. Meditation - meditation gives you an opportunity to come to know your invisible self. It allows you to empty yourself of the endless hyperactivity of your, and to attain a calmness. It teaches you to be peaceful, to remove stress, to receive answers where confusion previously reigned, to slow yourself down, and ultimately and ultimately, when you adopt meditation as a way of life, to be able to go to that peaceful place any time. As Blaise Pascal said about the benefits of meditation, '' All mans miseries derive from not able to sit quietly in a room alone. 'Meditation is your opportunity to create what you will be, by entering the invisible world of thought and playing it out there first, almost like a divine rehearsal for your life.

 

G. Personality - everything that you know about yourself as a physical being corresponds to a mental equivalent, or a belief you are holding. If you perceive shortcomings in your relationships in your responsibility, then it is because you have the mental equivalent of shortcomings in your belief system. The way to change those mental equivalents is by thinking quietly constantly and persistently of the kind of person you truly want to become. If you want to expand your confidence in life, you must speak of your confidence, and mention examples of that confidence. Remember that neither your family nor your culture gave you your personality. You created it. Trust that you will gain the necessary variables in your personality to create everything you need for yourself, and you will no longer hang on to those infantile descriptions of yourself as an early age. The kinds of person you want to become, along with the necessary ingredients for creating that person, are all within your power. Allow yourself to experience the feeling that you already are everything, including a miracle.  As Hermann Hesse stated, there is no reality except that one contained within us.  This is why so many people   live such an unreal life.  They take the images outside them for reality and never allow the world to assert itself.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

The Author of this book teaches me several things that ease the ups and downs of this world by incorporating the elements of invisible self in to his teachings. The ideas incorporated in each chapter, along all its examples are easy to understand. Its implementation is also very easy. The concept gained from this book obliges you to understand the reality of this world and what is within it. The writer's discovery of the universal power is what I like most as he shows it with many examples and life experiences.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

'' The great tragedy is not death, but what dies within you when you are alive…''          pp 242

This quote is really important as it has great message for all human being. It shows me that I have to use all my potential before the date to depart from this world has come.  It shows clearly that the supreme goal of human existence is attained when we become peaceful with our own immortality use our potential and view death not as an ending or punishment.

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

No

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No,

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             8.5

B. How helpful were its contents?                             9

C. How easy was it to understand?                            9

D. Would you recommend it to others?                     9

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       8.5

 ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Giant Steps

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book shows the reader how to come up with big difference through smaller changes. It incorporates several aspects of minor changes we have to make in our thinking process to become successful. It reflects the importance of dreaming & goal setting, the role of belief, the necessity of questioning and answering, importance of success conditioning, importance of using empowering and motivating words, roles of values and rules in life and etc. It aligns all this issues towards the success of human being and explains how they are very essential in achieving what one wants to achieve in life.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A. Decision Making - Each of us are endowed with innate resources that enable us to achieve all we have dreamed of and more. The floodgates can be opened by one decision, bringing us joy or sorrow, prosperity or poverty, companionship or solitude, long life or early death. Make a decision today that can immediately change or improve the quality of your life. Does something you have been putting off, master new skills, treat people with newfound respect and compassion, and call someone you haven't spoken to in years. Just know that all the decisions have consequences. Even making no decision has at all is a decision on its own. Although we cannot control the events in our lives, we can always control our response to them, and the actions we take as a result. The more decisions you make, the better you will become at making them. Muscles get stronger with use, and so it is with your decision making muscles. Research has consistently shown that those who succeed tend to make decisions rapidly and are slow to reverse a well thought-out position. Conversely, people who fail usually decide slowly and change their minds frequently. Once you have made a sound decision, stick to it.

 

B. Belief - so often people blame events for how their lives have turned out. Yet what really shapes our lives is the meaning we attach to events. Nothing in life has any meaning except the meaning we give it. One of the marvels of being human is our ability to fill any event with uplifting or devastating significance. And this emanates from our beliefs. Beliefs have the power to create and the power to destroy. It is more than a feeling of certainty about what something means. While an unshakable sense of certainty can help you accomplish great things, it also has the potential to blind you to the very information that could change your life forever. It drives all of our behavior. While some affect only one aspect of our lives, others are more pervasive. To overcome the false belief that a problem is all encompassing, you must take control of some part of it immediately. Remember, all personal breakthroughs begin with a change in beliefs.

 

C. Asking Questions - quit simply successful peoples are those who have asked better questions and as a result gotten better answers. Most of our thought processes from evaluating - to imagining - to deciding involve asking and answering questions. If we want to change the quality of our lives, we must change what we habitually ask of ourselves and others. Quality questions create a quality life. Businesses succeed when their decision makers ask the right questions about product lines or markets or strategic planning. Relationships flourish when people ask the right questions about where potential conflicts exist and how to support each other rather than tearing each other down. For whatever area of your life you want to improve, there are questions you can ask that will provide you with answers - solutions that can catapult you and those you love to a higher level of success and enjoyment. Remember, it is not only the questions you ask, but the questions you fail to ask, that shape your destiny.

 

D.  Success Conditioning - to create a new pattern of thinking, feeling of behaving, you must first interrupt the old pattern. Whatever you fail to use you lose. An easy way to interrupt a limiting pattern is simply to avoid indulging in it. Most peoples' attempts to change are only temporary because they fail to find an alternative way of getting out of pain and in to pleasure. Old patters must be replaced, not just eliminated. So, to create a lasting change we must condition our nervous systems to succeed not just once, but consistently. We can condition any behavior if we do it with enough repetition and emotional intensity. Remember, it is important to reinforce the new pattern of behavior by immediately rewarding yourself or someone you are helping whenever you use it. Any pattern of thinking, feeling or behavior that is consistently reinforced will become a habit.

 

E. Words -words have the power to start wars or create peace, destroy relationships or strengthen them. How we feel about anything is shaped by the meaning we attach to it. The words you consciously or unconsciously select to describe a situation immediately change what it means to you and thus how you feel. Most of us are unconscious in our selection of the words we use to consistently describe our life experience. Often we have adopted words to describe our emotions without ever thinking about the potential impact they will have on us or others. These words become part of our habitual vocabulary and actually shape the way we feel about our lives.

 

F. Values and Rules - As Bruce Barton said, nothing splendid has ever been achieved except by those who dared believe that something inside of them was superior to circumstance.  We all respect men and women who take a stand for what they believe, even if we don't agree with their ideas about what is right or wrong. There is undeniable strength in individuals who congruently lead lives in which their philosophies and actions are one. We have to clearly identify our values so that they can be helpful in building not only good interpersonal relationship but also a winning mind and heart. Living according to our values depends completely up on our rules; those beliefs we hold about what has happened in order to feel successful, or happy or healthy. It is as if we have a miniature court system setup in our brains. Our personal rules are the ultimate judge and jury, deciding whether our actions have met the criteria necessary for us to celebrate the attainment of a certain value; they determine whether we feel good or bad about any situation, whether we give ourselves pain or pleasure. Every upset you have ever had with another human being has been a rules upset. You weren't upset with the person; you were upset that he or she violated one of your rules, one of your standards or beliefs about how things must or should be. In fact, you may have violated one of your own rules for how you should behave, think or feel. Don't expect people to abide by your rules if you don't clearly communicate what they are. And don't expect them to live by your rules if you are not willing to compromise and live by at least some of theirs.

 

G. Identity- Identity is a belief that you have about who you are. It is a force that shapes your life. It determines what you consider possible or impossible, what you attempt or pull back from, how you think and how you interact. We must be aware that we hold the ultimate power to define who we are. Our past does not determine our present or future. Take action and claim your new, empowering identity, starting today. In order to produce the most profound and rapid improvements in the quality of your life, you must shift, change, or expand your identity.

 

3.  How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

Each issue raised in this book is really inspiring and takes only a few investment of time to change a life. Ideas raised are inspiring and easy to understand. They can be easily put in to practice. Revising the main points also takes only few hours. It is a book that surely eases the burden of readers while simultaneously incorporated a giant steps to be followed to become successful.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

'' Words have the power to start wars or create peace, destroy relationships or strengthen them…''  pp 153

 

This quote is important as it has great message for all human being. It shows me that the words I use each day in my conversation with people has to be checked and analyzed as to what they really are. I didn't realize this thing before, though in fact it is true. So that, I get a great message those words are powerful agents in between me and others. The more they are nice, lovely and exciting, the better my relationship to others will be positive and vice versa.

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

No

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             9

B. How helpful were its contents?                             10

C. How easy was it to understand?                            9

D. Would you recommend it to others?                     10

E. What is the overall rating you would give it?        9.5

______________________________________________________

How to win friends and Influence People

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book deals with the means and ways in which we can win the hearts of our friends and persuade them towards the goals we want to achieve. It illustrates how many prominent personalities like Abraham Lincoln were treating their fellow people, their subordinates and peer friends. It describes the safest way possible to have a peaceful, productive and cooperative way of living with friends while simultaneously using their effort in attaining one's own personal or organizational objectives. It clarifies how human beings are self centered and shows us the mechanisms through which way we approach them to obtain what we want from them.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

A. Three C's (Criticism, condemnation, complain) -They are dangerous because they wounds a person's precious pride, hurts his sense of importance, and arouses resentment. As skinner stated, an animal rewarded for good behavior will learn much more rapidly and retain what it learns far more effectively than an animal punished for bad behavior which is true of human being as well. Abraham Lincoln once said,'' Don't criticize others; they are just as what we would be under similar circumstances.'' It is said by Confucius not to complain others about the snow on your neighbor's roof when your own doorstep is unclean. When dealing with people, let us remember that we are not dealing with creatures of logic. We are dealing with creatures of emotion, creatures bristling with prejudices and motivated by pride and vanity. Instead of condemning people, let's understand them. Let us try to figure out why they do what they do. That's a lot more profitable and intriguing than criticism; and it breeds sympathy, tolerance and kindness. To know all is forgiving all.

 

B. Smile - Chinese said, '' A man without a smiling face must not open a shop''. Your smile is a messenger of your good will. Your smile brightens the lives of all who see it. To someone who has seen a dozen people frown, scowl or turn their faces away, your smile is like the sun breaking through the clouds. Especially when that someone is under pressure from his bosses, his customers, his teachers or parents or children, a smile can help him realize that all is not hopeless -that there is joy in the world.  A smile has several importance, it enriches those who receive without impoverishing those who give, it creates happiness in the home, fosters good will in a business and is the counter sign of friends, it cannot be bought, begged, borrowed or stolen, for it is something that is no earthly good to anybody till it is given away and so much more.

 

C. Names - Jim Farley discovered early in life that the average person is more interested in his or her own name than in all other names in this world put together. Remember that name and call it easily, and you have paid a subtle and very effective compliment. The executive who is telling his subordinates he can't remember names is at the same time telling them that he can't remember a significant part of his business and is operating on quick sand. Most people do not remember names, for the simple reason that they don't take the time and energy necessary to concentrate and repeat and fix names indelibly in their minds. They make excuse for themselves that they are too busy. Franklin Roosevelt knew that one of the simplest, most obvious and most important ways of gaining good will was by remembering names and making people feel important. We should be aware of the magic contained in a name and realize that this single is wholly and completely owned by a person with who are dealing… and nobody else. The Name sets the individual part; it makes him or her unique among all others. The information we are imparting or the request we are making takes on a special importance when we approach the situation with the name of the individual.

 

D. Make others feel important - if we are so contemptibly selfish that we can't radiate a little happiness and pass on a bit of honest appreciation without trying to get something out of the other person in return - if our souls are no bigger than our sour crab apples, we shall meet with the failure we richly deserve. There is one all important law of human conduct. If we obey that law, we shall almost never get in to trouble. In fact, that law, if obeyed, will bring us countless friends and constant happiness. But the very instant we break the law; we shall get in to endless trouble. The law is this; make the other person feel important. John Dewey, said that the desire to be important is the deepest urge in human nature and William James said '' the deepest urge in human nature is the craving to be appreciated. You want the approval of those with whom you come in contact. You want recognition of your true worth. You want a feeling that you are important in your little world. You don't want to listen to cheap, insincere flattery, but you crave sincere, appreciation. The unvarnished truth is that almost all the people you meet feel themselves superior to you, in some way, and a sure way to their hearts is to let them realize in some subtle way that you recognize their importance, and recognize it sincerely.

 

E. Avoidance of Argument - There is only one way under heaven to get the best of an argument - and that is to avoid it. Nine times out of ten, an argument ends with each of the contestants more firmly convinced than ever that he/she is absolutely right. Ben Franklin used to say, '' If you argue and rankle and contradict, you may achieve a victory sometimes; but it will be an empty victory because you will never get your opponents good will. Buddha said;'' Hatred is never ended by hatred but by love.'' And a misunderstanding is never ended by an argument but by tact, diplomacy, conciliation and a sympathetic desire to see the other persons view point.

 

F. Admitting Mistakes - say about yourself all the derogatory things you know the other person is thinking or wants to say or intends to say -  and say them before  that person has a chance to say them. Any fool can try to defend his/her mistakes - and most fools do - but it raises one above the herd and gives one a feeling of nobility and exultation to admit ones mistakes. When we are right, let's try to win people gently and tactfully to our own way of thinking, and when we are wrong - and that will be surprisingly often, if we honest with ourselves - let's admit our mistakes quickly and with enthusiasm. Not only will that technique produce astonishing results; but believe or not, it is a lot more fun, under the circumstances, that trying to defend oneself. Remember the old proverb;'' by fighting you never get enough but by yielding you get more than you expected.''

 

G. Suggestion Other than Order -Always give suggestion other than orders. It is always nice to give an opportunity for peoples to do it themselves. Never tell your assistants to do things, rather let them to do; let them learn from their mistakes. Asking questions not only makes an order more palatable; it often stimulates the creativity of the persons whom you ask. People are more likely to accept an order if they have had a part in the decision that caused the order to be issued.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

Those ideas which are mentioned in the book are important in that they are fundamental to my relationship with friends, families, peers, subordinates and bosses. It helps to easily understand the basic principles for managing one's own interpersonal relationship. Human beings are naturally selfish and self centered; they always want to be treated in a way that protects their needs and interests. And this book is a best solution for that as it shows the basic principles of dealing with people.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

'' All men have fears, but the brave put down their fears and go forward, sometimes to death, but always to victory'' pp 187

From this I understand that, fear is not the only phenomenon to me. It is something that everybody feels. So, I learn a great lesson from this quotation that winners commit themselves to success, to the extent of giving away their life.

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

No

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No,

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             9

B. How helpful were its contents?                             10

C. How easy was it to understand?                            9

D. Would you recommend it to others?                     10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       9.5

__________________________________________________________________

How to win friends and Influence People
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?


The book deals with the means and ways in which we can win the hearts of our friends and persuade them towards the goals we want to achieve. It illustrates how many prominent personalities like Abraham Lincoln were treating their fellow people, their subordinates and peer friends. It describes the safest way possible to have a peaceful, productive and cooperative way of living with friends while simultaneously using their effort in attaining one’s own personal or organizational objectives. It clarifies how human beings are self centered and shows us the mechanisms through which way we approach them to obtain what we want from them.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Three C’s (Criticism, condemnation, complain) –They are dangerous because they wounds a person’s precious pride, hurts his sense of importance, and arouses resentment. As skinner stated, an animal rewarded for good behavior will learn much more rapidly and retain what it learns far more effectively than an animal punished for bad behavior which is true of human being as well. Abraham Lincoln once said,’’ Don’t criticize others; they are just as what we would be under similar circumstances.’’ It is said by Confucius not to complain others about the snow on your neighbor’s roof when your own doorstep is unclean. When dealing with people, let us remember that we are not dealing with creatures of logic. We are dealing with creatures of emotion, creatures bristling with prejudices and motivated by pride and vanity. Instead of condemning people, let’s understand them. Let us try to figure out why they do what they do. That’s a lot more profitable and intriguing than criticism; and it breeds sympathy, tolerance and kindness. To know all is forgiving all.

B. Smile - Chinese said, ‘’ A man without a smiling face must not open a shop’’. Your smile is a messenger of your good will. Your smile brightens the lives of all who see it. To someone who has seen a dozen people frown, scowl or turn their faces away, your smile is like the sun breaking through the clouds. Especially when that someone is under pressure from his bosses, his customers, his teachers or parents or children, a smile can help him realize that all is not hopeless –that there is joy in the world. A smile has several importance, it enriches those who receive without impoverishing those who give, it creates happiness in the home, fosters good will in a business and is the counter sign of friends, it cannot be bought, begged, borrowed or stolen, for it is something that is no earthly good to anybody till it is given away and so much more.

C. Names – Jim Farley discovered early in life that the average person is more interested in his or her own name than in all other names in this world put together. Remember that name and call it easily, and you have paid a subtle and very effective compliment. The executive who is telling his subordinates he can’t remember names is at the same time telling them that he can’t remember a significant part of his business and is operating on quick sand. Most people do not remember names, for the simple reason that they don’t take the time and energy necessary to concentrate and repeat and fix names indelibly in their minds. They make excuse for themselves that they are too busy. Franklin Roosevelt knew that one of the simplest, most obvious and most important ways of gaining good will was by remembering names and making people feel important. We should be aware of the magic contained in a name and realize that this single is wholly and completely owned by a person with who are dealing… and nobody else. The Name sets the individual part; it makes him or her unique among all others. The information we are imparting or the request we are making takes on a special importance when we approach the situation with the name of the individual.

D. Make others feel important – if we are so contemptibly selfish that we can’t radiate a little happiness and pass on a bit of honest appreciation without trying to get something out of the other person in return – if our souls are no bigger than our sour crab apples, we shall meet with the failure we richly deserve. There is one all important law of human conduct. If we obey that law, we shall almost never get in to trouble. In fact, that law, if obeyed, will bring us countless friends and constant happiness. But the very instant we break the law; we shall get in to endless trouble. The law is this; make the other person feel important. John Dewey, said that the desire to be important is the deepest urge in human nature and William James said ‘’ the deepest urge in human nature is the craving to be appreciated. You want the approval of those with whom you come in contact. You want recognition of your true worth. You want a feeling that you are important in your little world. You don’t want to listen to cheap, insincere flattery, but you crave sincere, appreciation. The unvarnished truth is that almost all the people you meet feel themselves superior to you, in some way, and a sure way to their hearts is to let them realize in some subtle way that you recognize their importance, and recognize it sincerely.

E. Avoidance of Argument – There is only one way under heaven to get the best of an argument – and that is to avoid it. Nine times out of ten, an argument ends with each of the contestants more firmly convinced than ever that he/she is absolutely right. Ben Franklin used to say, ‘’ If you argue and rankle and contradict, you may achieve a victory sometimes; but it will be an empty victory because you will never get your opponents good will. Buddha said;’’ Hatred is never ended by hatred but by love.’’ And a misunderstanding is never ended by an argument but by tact, diplomacy, conciliation and a sympathetic desire to see the other persons view point.

F. Admitting Mistakes – say about yourself all the derogatory things you know the other person is thinking or wants to say or intends to say - and say them before that person has a chance to say them. Any fool can try to defend his/her mistakes – and most fools do – but it raises one above the herd and gives one a feeling of nobility and exultation to admit ones mistakes. When we are right, let’s try to win people gently and tactfully to our own way of thinking, and when we are wrong – and that will be surprisingly often, if we honest with ourselves – let’s admit our mistakes quickly and with enthusiasm. Not only will that technique produce astonishing results; but believe or not, it is a lot more fun, under the circumstances, that trying to defend oneself. Remember the old proverb;’’ by fighting you never get enough but by yielding you get more than you expected.’’

G. Suggestion Other than Order –Always give suggestion other than orders. It is always nice to give an opportunity for peoples to do it themselves. Never tell your assistants to do things, rather let them to do; let them learn from their mistakes. Asking questions not only makes an order more palatable; it often stimulates the creativity of the persons whom you ask. People are more likely to accept an order if they have had a part in the decision that caused the order to be issued.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Those ideas which are mentioned in the book are important in that they are fundamental to my relationship with friends, families, peers, subordinates and bosses. It helps to easily understand the basic principles for managing one’s own interpersonal relationship. Human beings are naturally selfish and self centered; they always want to be treated in a way that protects their needs and interests. And this book is a best solution for that as it shows the basic principles of dealing with people.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’ All men have fears, but the brave put down their fears and go forward, sometimes to death, but always to victory’’ pp 187
From this I understand that, fear is not the only phenomenon to me. It is something that everybody feels. So, I learn a great lesson from this quotation that winners commit themselves to success, to the extent of giving away their life.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No,

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 9
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.5

_____________________________________________________________________________

Giant Steps
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book shows the reader how to come up with big difference through smaller changes. It incorporates several aspects of minor changes we have to make in our thinking process to become successful. It reflects the importance of dreaming & goal setting, the role of belief, the necessity of questioning and answering, importance of success conditioning, importance of using empowering and motivating words, roles of values and rules in life and etc. It aligns all this issues towards the success of human being and explains how they are very essential in achieving what one wants to achieve in life.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Decision Making – Each of us are endowed with innate resources that enable us to achieve all we have dreamed of and more. The floodgates can be opened by one decision, bringing us joy or sorrow, prosperity or poverty, companionship or solitude, long life or early death. Make a decision today that can immediately change or improve the quality of your life. Does something you have been putting off, master new skills, treat people with newfound respect and compassion, and call someone you haven’t spoken to in years. Just know that all the decisions have consequences. Even making no decision has at all is a decision on its own. Although we cannot control the events in our lives, we can always control our response to them, and the actions we take as a result. The more decisions you make, the better you will become at making them. Muscles get stronger with use, and so it is with your decision making muscles. Research has consistently shown that those who succeed tend to make decisions rapidly and are slow to reverse a well thought-out position. Conversely, people who fail usually decide slowly and change their minds frequently. Once you have made a sound decision, stick to it.

B. Belief - so often people blame events for how their lives have turned out. Yet what really shapes our lives is the meaning we attach to events. Nothing in life has any meaning except the meaning we give it. One of the marvels of being human is our ability to fill any event with uplifting or devastating significance. And this emanates from our beliefs. Beliefs have the power to create and the power to destroy. It is more than a feeling of certainty about what something means. While an unshakable sense of certainty can help you accomplish great things, it also has the potential to blind you to the very information that could change your life forever. It drives all of our behavior. While some affect only one aspect of our lives, others are more pervasive. To overcome the false belief that a problem is all encompassing, you must take control of some part of it immediately. Remember, all personal breakthroughs begin with a change in beliefs.

C. Asking Questions – quit simply successful peoples are those who have asked better questions and as a result gotten better answers. Most of our thought processes from evaluating - to imagining - to deciding involve asking and answering questions. If we want to change the quality of our lives, we must change what we habitually ask of ourselves and others. Quality questions create a quality life. Businesses succeed when their decision makers ask the right questions about product lines or markets or strategic planning. Relationships flourish when people ask the right questions about where potential conflicts exist and how to support each other rather than tearing each other down. For whatever area of your life you want to improve, there are questions you can ask that will provide you with answers – solutions that can catapult you and those you love to a higher level of success and enjoyment. Remember, it is not only the questions you ask, but the questions you fail to ask, that shape your destiny.

D. Success Conditioning – to create a new pattern of thinking, feeling of behaving, you must first interrupt the old pattern. Whatever you fail to use you lose. An easy way to interrupt a limiting pattern is simply to avoid indulging in it. Most peoples’ attempts to change are only temporary because they fail to find an alternative way of getting out of pain and in to pleasure. Old patters must be replaced, not just eliminated. So, to create a lasting change we must condition our nervous systems to succeed not just once, but consistently. We can condition any behavior if we do it with enough repetition and emotional intensity. Remember, it is important to reinforce the new pattern of behavior by immediately rewarding yourself or someone you are helping whenever you use it. Any pattern of thinking, feeling or behavior that is consistently reinforced will become a habit.

E. Words –words have the power to start wars or create peace, destroy relationships or strengthen them. How we feel about anything is shaped by the meaning we attach to it. The words you consciously or unconsciously select to describe a situation immediately change what it means to you and thus how you feel. Most of us are unconscious in our selection of the words we use to consistently describe our life experience. Often we have adopted words to describe our emotions without ever thinking about the potential impact they will have on us or others. These words become part of our habitual vocabulary and actually shape the way we feel about our lives.

F. Values and Rules – As Bruce Barton said, nothing splendid has ever been achieved except by those who dared believe that something inside of them was superior to circumstance. We all respect men and women who take a stand for what they believe, even if we don’t agree with their ideas about what is right or wrong. There is undeniable strength in individuals who congruently lead lives in which their philosophies and actions are one. We have to clearly identify our values so that they can be helpful in building not only good interpersonal relationship but also a winning mind and heart. Living according to our values depends completely up on our rules; those beliefs we hold about what has happened in order to feel successful, or happy or healthy. It is as if we have a miniature court system setup in our brains. Our personal rules are the ultimate judge and jury, deciding whether our actions have met the criteria necessary for us to celebrate the attainment of a certain value; they determine whether we feel good or bad about any situation, whether we give ourselves pain or pleasure. Every upset you have ever had with another human being has been a rules upset. You weren’t upset with the person; you were upset that he or she violated one of your rules, one of your standards or beliefs about how things must or should be. In fact, you may have violated one of your own rules for how you should behave, think or feel. Don’t expect people to abide by your rules if you don’t clearly communicate what they are. And don’t expect them to live by your rules if you are not willing to compromise and live by at least some of theirs.

G. Identity– Identity is a belief that you have about who you are. It is a force that shapes your life. It determines what you consider possible or impossible, what you attempt or pull back from, how you think and how you interact. We must be aware that we hold the ultimate power to define who we are. Our past does not determine our present or future. Take action and claim your new, empowering identity, starting today. In order to produce the most profound and rapid improvements in the quality of your life, you must shift, change, or expand your identity.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Each issue raised in this book is really inspiring and takes only a few investment of time to change a life. Ideas raised are inspiring and easy to understand. They can be easily put in to practice. Revising the main points also takes only few hours. It is a book that surely eases the burden of readers while simultaneously incorporated a giant steps to be followed to become successful.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’ Words have the power to start wars or create peace, destroy relationships or strengthen them…’’ pp 153

This quote is important as it has great message for all human being. It shows me that the words I use each day in my conversation with people has to be checked and analyzed as to what they really are. I didn’t realize this thing before, though in fact it is true. So that, I get a great message those words are powerful agents in between me and others. The more they are nice, lovely and exciting, the better my relationship to others will be positive and vice versa.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 9
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.5

_______________________________________________________________

Real Magic
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book shows the reader how to create miracles in life. It illustrates with many examples how to create what you may have previously thought to be impossible in your life. Its lessons show that you are capable of achieving perfect equilibrium of the mind if commitment is added to one’s own inner transformation. The book more specifically deals with explaining the importance of spirituality and invisible self. It explains that man is more than what he sees and understands in his five senses. It is if and only if he/she worked and goes in line with his/her invisible self that he/she could gain the most out of life.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Enlightenment – the quoted that every successful, truly happy person that I have encountered has confirmed their knowing that there simply are no accidents. They see the universe as all purposeful, including the so-called accidents. All agree that every unique happening in our lives leads to a higher place. Life’s journey is envisioned by the writer as a journey with three ascending paths. The first is enlightenment through suffering, the pattern of growth for many places where events occur, suffering takes place, and then the light appears. The second is enlightenment through outcome, a stage at which you ask God, Why me God?, you develop a knowing that says, there are no accidents, everything I am experiencing is in some way necessary for me to move ahead to the next step. Rather than asking the why me questions, you begin to ask, what is in this experience that I can use in a beneficial way, even if I don’t understand why it is happening right now?. Here you ask yourself, how can I create the outcome that I want with this illness that I am presently experiencing? Or what I can learn about myself and how much strength can I muster to deal effectively with this problem. The third is enlightenment through purpose that explains the importance of a purpose in life. It describes that nothing is more likely to help a person overcome or endure troubles than the consciousness of having a task in life. It reveals the very importance of having a purpose in life indicating that the glorious masterpiece of man is how to live with purpose.

B. Readiness to Learn – here the ancient Zen proverb, when the student is ready the teacher will appear. When you are truly determined in your own mind to experience real magic and to live each day at purpose, you will be shown how to make it happen. When you know in your heart that every single person you encounter in your life time has something to reach you, you are able to utilize their offerings in a profound way. When you are a student who is ready, the stranger who talks to you about how he overcome his addiction years ago becomes a guide sent to you cope with your own personal addiction. The assistance you need will be provided by the universe as soon as you convert your readiness to willingness. Once you are willing you will find teachers in every niche of your life.

C. Spirituality – Miracles cannot be understood by the rational mind. They defy logic. They cannot be understood in the ways we have been conditioned to think. Therefore, in order to understand the world of real magic you will need to learn how to go way beyond your rational mind and enter the dimension of spirituality. The wonderful gift of religion is the teaching that we are spiritual in nature, and that we all have a soul as part of our humanity. The place for creating real magic will be in your spiritual awakening, yet it will be manifested here and now in this physical world where you find yourself every day. You have the capacity to create miracles and live a life of real magic, by using your invisible self to influence your physical reality. When you truly become a spiritual being first and a physical being second, and know how to live and breathe in this new alignment, you will become your own miracle worker. When you examine the lives of the most influential people who ever walked among us, you discover one thread that winds through them all. They have been aligned first with their spiritual nature and only then with their physical selves. A spiritual being is comfortable with the idea of having teachers, observers and divine guidance available at any time. The spiritual being sees the physical world as an arena for growth and learning with the specific purpose of serving and evolving in to higher levels of love. Once you no longer need to dominate others, to acquire more possessions or to control the environment around you, you will have shifted your focus from external power to personal empowerment. You will find that being personally empowered does not reduce you to wimp hood and being the victim of others in any way.

D. Vision – Learning to act as if the miracle you seek in your mind is already here gives you a big head start on this phenomenon world of real magic. When you have a vision and you act as if that vision were already here, you create not only the necessary expertise, but you literally become your own miracle worker. If you believe that you could never head up such an undertaking because you don’t have the necessary training, credentials, experience, or whatever, then that is what you will act up on. Being to act as if you were that expert, even if you have to fool yourself in the beginning. If you have enough belief in yourself, and you are ready, the teacher will appear and you will plunge right in and create the credential that you will need to get the job completed. By becoming aware of the poisons in your life, and using your invisible miracle-mind to create what you truly want and know you deserve, you will find yourself living in harmony. You will experience in your physical world precisely what is that you think you are entitled to create. Inventory your life and get in to purpose.

E. Giving – Rather than asking something of others, try giving instead. Become the giver, even if what you give is simply the radiance of love and unconditional acceptance that you are feeling within. It is the giver, not the taker who is the true miracle worker and ironically, it is the one who is focused on giving as his or her purpose in life who seems to receive so much more than those who are always looking for more. Expect no appreciation and allow those you meet to be what they need to be. To be authentically powerful, you must not reside in how others react to you, nor exclusively in your physically strength or appearance.

F. Meditation – meditation gives you an opportunity to come to know your invisible self. It allows you to empty yourself of the endless hyperactivity of your, and to attain a calmness. It teaches you to be peaceful, to remove stress, to receive answers where confusion previously reigned, to slow yourself down, and ultimately and ultimately, when you adopt meditation as a way of life, to be able to go to that peaceful place any time. As Blaise Pascal said about the benefits of meditation, ‘’ All mans miseries derive from not able to sit quietly in a room alone. ‘Meditation is your opportunity to create what you will be, by entering the invisible world of thought and playing it out there first, almost like a divine rehearsal for your life.

G. Personality – everything that you know about yourself as a physical being corresponds to a mental equivalent, or a belief you are holding. If you perceive shortcomings in your relationships in your responsibility, then it is because you have the mental equivalent of shortcomings in your belief system. The way to change those mental equivalents is by thinking quietly constantly and persistently of the kind of person you truly want to become. If you want to expand your confidence in life, you must speak of your confidence, and mention examples of that confidence. Remember that neither your family nor your culture gave you your personality. You created it. Trust that you will gain the necessary variables in your personality to create everything you need for yourself, and you will no longer hang on to those infantile descriptions of yourself as an early age. The kinds of person you want to become, along with the necessary ingredients for creating that person, are all within your power. Allow yourself to experience the feeling that you already are everything, including a miracle. As Hermann Hesse stated, there is no reality except that one contained within us. This is why so many people live such an unreal life. They take the images outside them for reality and never allow the world to assert itself.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

The Author of this book teaches me several things that ease the ups and downs of this world by incorporating the elements of invisible self in to his teachings. The ideas incorporated in each chapter, along all its examples are easy to understand. Its implementation is also very easy. The concept gained from this book obliges you to understand the reality of this world and what is within it. The writer’s discovery of the universal power is what I like most as he shows it with many examples and life experiences.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’ The great tragedy is not death, but what dies within you when you are alive…’’ pp 242
This quote is really important as it has great message for all human being. It shows me that I have to use all my potential before the date to depart from this world has come. It shows clearly that the supreme goal of human existence is attained when we become peaceful with our own immortality use our potential and view death not as an ending or punishment.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No,

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 8.5
B. How helpful were its contents? 9
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 9
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 8.5

__________________________________________________________________

The New Dynamics of Winning
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book deals with enabling the reader how he/she can learn the process of winning by developing all the resources of his/her mind and body to the fullest. It takes on place the experiences of many champions affirming that winners were one day a beginners. Several important ingredients of winning; the drive to win, commitment, the Olympian within, integrity, visualization of victory, self confidence and self transformation, strength through mental toughness, coach ability and leadership quality are clearly described in the book. They are all illustrated with examples of some of the champion in the athletic arena.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Stair stepping – refers to taking a big goal and breaking it down in to smaller components. By setting lower level goals – ones that are measurable and relatively easier to reach – it is easier to make correction you get off target. If you tried to eat an entire steak in one mouthful, you’d choke. But by cutting it in to smaller, bite sized pieces, it is digestible and enjoyable. Achieving goals step by step also builds your confidence. While smaller, the successes are experienced more often. This provides the positive feedback and reinforcement necessary for achieving any big goal. Maximum success is built up on mini goals. Any goal can be achieved, but first it must be broken down in to a series of sub goals. Each smaller goal should lead you, one day at a time to your larger life goal.

B. Paying the Price – The commitment to paying the price is a key quality in mind of a champion. You could even say that if success has an entry fee; the cost is total commitment. As stated by the writer, paying the price of success for most of us seems like paying the United States national debt. It appears overwhelming for us to invest in ourselves the amount of time and effort required for peak performance. Too often, we believe our own physical and environmental limitations are unique and much greater than those of gifted champions. Most of our hurdles in life are self imposed limitations that can be overcome if we never, ever give up on ourselves.

C. Self Esteem – self esteem is made up of both self worth and self trust. Self worth is simply the feeling of being glad that you are you, with your genes, your body, and your background. Self trust is the functional belief in your own ability positively and effectively to control what happens to you in a world of uncertainty. Remember that no eyes will ever critique a video of you, a photo of you, a reflection of you in a window, as sharply as critically as your own eyes. Make an effort to feel good about your physical self, including how you look, how you dress, and how you think. Realize that you can be your own worst enemy or your own best friend. Self esteem or lack of it, in general is at the root of all behavior; both positive and negative.

D. Silent Approval – people today, especially young people, need far fewer critics and far better role models. By setting an example of honesty, consistency, and commitment in all your relationships, you can create a kind of wealth for yourself and your family that is of much greater value than fame and fortune as we usually understand it. Silent approval occurs when authority figures –whether they are heads of families or leaders of companies –look the other side way when actions conflict with their stated principles. Don’t tell your children, your peers, or your peers or your subordinates what to do. Show them by doing it yourself. Talk is never enough, even when you are speaking the truth. When you promise something, do people believe it will really happen, or is there a question of whether you really mean it?

E. Integrity – Integrity implies an understanding that people can trust you to do what you say you will do. Having a power is like drinking salt water. The more you consume, the thirstier you get. No matter how much wealth or recognition the world lays at your feet, don’t allow your personal integrity to be contradicted by your behavior in any area of your life. It is not just a matter of preserving your reputation. It is a matter of living a life with character. There is a lesson for all of us in the scandals of our public figures. You truly cannot separate your personal life from your professional life. You bring the same person to your place of business and home again. Integrity is non situational and it is absolute.

F. Visualization of Victory – visualization works because the mind reacts automatically to the information it receives in the form of feelings, words and sensory experiences, such as sight, taste and touch. The mind can’t tell the difference between a real experience and one that has been vividly and repeatedly imagined. By mentally rehearsing the perfect accomplishment of your goals, you create a neurological pathway that allows your muscles to repeat those actions. Seeing leads to believing and believing leads to achieving.

G. Coach ability – coachable performers accept the role of authority figures. Respect and trust for authority, however doesn’t mean blind submission and robot like conformity. The coachable champion trusts his or her own judgment as well as the decision of designated leaders. They have a healthy personal Impulse toward self direction and freedom of interpretation. This means he or she enjoys innovation, and has the capacity to form new or different opinions from those held by other people. They have also high tolerance for order and organization. And generally, all great coaches were themselves very coachable and are orderly and organized individuals who habitually plan a head and who are naturally oriented toward the future. They don’t replay yesterday’s game in their heads; they prefer to focus on the games yet to be played.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

The Ideas stated in this book are very important in that they can be easily understandable to be applied in everyday life. All the ideas stated in each chapter are very essential in steeping up towards winning. The examples mentioned in the book are motivating enough towards reaching one’s own life objectives. They show important ingredients in life that are necessary to become a champion.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’ You don’t have to know everything, as long as you know people who know the things you don’t…’’ pp 187
From this I quote, it can be easy to understand the importance of giving recognition to your environment. It requires commitment to subordinate your own ego for the good of the team. Authentic leaders ask, listen and learn. Rather than considering oneself as a knower of everything, valuing importance of others knowledge has a great return. So, this explicitly shows that no matter how far you fail to know everything, it has no problem if peoples around you know it as you can learn from them, and vice versa.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 9
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 9
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.25

__________________________________________________________

The New Dynamics of Winning
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The book deals with enabling the reader how he/she can learn the process of winning by developing all the resources of his/her mind and body to the fullest. It takes on place the experiences of many champions affirming that winners were one day a beginners. Several important ingredients of winning; the drive to win, commitment, the Olympian within, integrity, visualization of victory, self confidence and self transformation, strength through mental toughness, coach ability and leadership quality are clearly described in the book. They are all illustrated with examples of some of the champion in the athletic arena.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Stair stepping – refers to taking a big goal and breaking it down in to smaller components. By setting lower level goals – ones that are measurable and relatively easier to reach – it is easier to make correction you get off target. If you tried to eat an entire steak in one mouthful, you’d choke. But by cutting it in to smaller, bite sized pieces, it is digestible and enjoyable. Achieving goals step by step also builds your confidence. While smaller, the successes are experienced more often. This provides the positive feedback and reinforcement necessary for achieving any big goal. Maximum success is built up on mini goals. Any goal can be achieved, but first it must be broken down in to a series of sub goals. Each smaller goal should lead you, one day at a time to your larger life goal.

B. Paying the Price – The commitment to paying the price is a key quality in mind of a champion. You could even say that if success has an entry fee; the cost is total commitment. As stated by the writer, paying the price of success for most of us seems like paying the United States national debt. It appears overwhelming for us to invest in ourselves the amount of time and effort required for peak performance. Too often, we believe our own physical and environmental limitations are unique and much greater than those of gifted champions. Most of our hurdles in life are self imposed limitations that can be overcome if we never, ever give up on ourselves.

C. Self Esteem – self esteem is made up of both self worth and self trust. Self worth is simply the feeling of being glad that you are you, with your genes, your body, and your background. Self trust is the functional belief in your own ability positively and effectively to control what happens to you in a world of uncertainty. Remember that no eyes will ever critique a video of you, a photo of you, a reflection of you in a window, as sharply as critically as your own eyes. Make an effort to feel good about your physical self, including how you look, how you dress, and how you think. Realize that you can be your own worst enemy or your own best friend. Self esteem or lack of it, in general is at the root of all behavior; both positive and negative.

D. Silent Approval – people today, especially young people, need far fewer critics and far better role models. By setting an example of honesty, consistency, and commitment in all your relationships, you can create a kind of wealth for yourself and your family that is of much greater value than fame and fortune as we usually understand it. Silent approval occurs when authority figures –whether they are heads of families or leaders of companies –look the other side way when actions conflict with their stated principles. Don’t tell your children, your peers, or your peers or your subordinates what to do. Show them by doing it yourself. Talk is never enough, even when you are speaking the truth. When you promise something, do people believe it will really happen, or is there a question of whether you really mean it?

E. Integrity – Integrity implies an understanding that people can trust you to do what you say you will do. Having a power is like drinking salt water. The more you consume, the thirstier you get. No matter how much wealth or recognition the world lays at your feet, don’t allow your personal integrity to be contradicted by your behavior in any area of your life. It is not just a matter of preserving your reputation. It is a matter of living a life with character. There is a lesson for all of us in the scandals of our public figures. You truly cannot separate your personal life from your professional life. You bring the same person to your place of business and home again. Integrity is non situational and it is absolute.

F. Visualization of Victory – visualization works because the mind reacts automatically to the information it receives in the form of feelings, words and sensory experiences, such as sight, taste and touch. The mind can’t tell the difference between a real experience and one that has been vividly and repeatedly imagined. By mentally rehearsing the perfect accomplishment of your goals, you create a neurological pathway that allows your muscles to repeat those actions. Seeing leads to believing and believing leads to achieving.

G. Coach ability – coachable performers accept the role of authority figures. Respect and trust for authority, however doesn’t mean blind submission and robot like conformity. The coachable champion trusts his or her own judgment as well as the decision of designated leaders. They have a healthy personal Impulse toward self direction and freedom of interpretation. This means he or she enjoys innovation, and has the capacity to form new or different opinions from those held by other people. They have also high tolerance for order and organization. And generally, all great coaches were themselves very coachable and are orderly and organized individuals who habitually plan a head and who are naturally oriented toward the future. They don’t replay yesterday’s game in their heads; they prefer to focus on the games yet to be played.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

The Ideas stated in this book are very important in that they can be easily understandable to be applied in everyday life. All the ideas stated in each chapter are very essential in steeping up towards winning. The examples mentioned in the book are motivating enough towards reaching one’s own life objectives. They show important ingredients in life that are necessary to become a champion.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

‘’ You don’t have to know everything, as long as you know people who know the things you don’t…’’ pp 187
From this I quote, it can be easy to understand the importance of giving recognition to your environment. It requires commitment to subordinate your own ego for the good of the team. Authentic leaders ask, listen and learn. Rather than considering oneself as a knower of everything, valuing importance of others knowledge has a great return. So, this explicitly shows that no matter how far you fail to know everything, it has no problem if peoples around you know it as you can learn from them, and vice versa.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 9
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 9
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.25

__________________________________________________________

Psycho Cybernetics
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book

The main idea that the author has conveyed in this book is how human potential has an immense role in changing the life of a human being. It stresses the importance of self image in utilizing and using ones’ potential effectively and efficiently. It, with practical examples shows as to how a negative self image is not more than a bad habit and being tolerant to change an old and negative image has a good impact in personal transformation. The book tells us that we are indeed the future, and is able to awaken us to these opportunities. Above all, it emphasizes the importance of oneself to change ones own and contribute to the change of his/her circumstances and the environment.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Self Image – Every one of us always acts, feels, and behaves in a way that is consistent with our self image – regardless of the reality of that image. It is our self image that prescribes our limits. And achieving a positive self image – the life instinct, rather than the descriptive instinct – is within the capability of every man, woman and child. Self image is the key element that determines whether our internal guidance system functions for success or for failure. It defines the size and scope of the targets our goal seeking device has to shoot for – the area of the possible. All behaviors, all actions, all feelings, all human capabilities were defined by the self image. No real behavioral changes could take place unless the self image is changed. Enhancing yourself image is not an end in itself. It is a necessary prerequisite for establishing goals for success. A poor self image can keep us from setting goals or discourages us from pursuing them.

B. Freeing oneself from false beliefs – Every human being is hypnotized to some extent, either by ideas he has repeated to himself or convinced himself are true. These negative ideas exactly the same effect on our behavior as the negative ideas implanted in to the mind of a hypnotized subject. The fears, doubts and self punishment you expressed are the results of self hypnotism. They are like old tapes that were recorded over and over in your subconscious mind. Your early child memories are often clues to your belief system. Your earliest memory of life is often indicative of the way you see yourself. A child who’s earliest is one of security and joy will tend to have a more positive self image than one who remembers uncertainty and fear. By freeing yourself from false beliefs, you expand the range of potential targets for your automatic mechanism. It is then up to you to turn your new positive self concept in to success on your own terms. It is not what you know about your resistance that is going to make a difference; it is what you do with what you know. If you persistently challenge your false beliefs with rational thinking, if you practice reflective relearning daily, and if you have a positive and realistic goal that is consistent with your new memories, you will experience your new beliefs redefining your attitudes, actions and capabilities. Use your conscious mind as a control knob to remind yourself that you are not defined by your mistakes, past or present, or by beliefs that come from old child tapes.

C. Relaxation - You don’t break a habit and form a new one through iron- jawed will power; you do it by creating your mental images of a desired result and by acting as if it has already been achieved. Only when you relax the forcing, demanding aspect of your thought can your insightful, intuitive self image develops. Only when your conscious mind frees itself from worrying, fretting, stewing and awfullizing situations is your subconscious mind susceptible to your reprogramming. Relaxation can often provide the solution to those unsolvable personal dilemmas. It helps people to see results immediately. When you are relaxed, your mind is capable of accelerated feats of learning and memory. It is the key to freeing the mind for creative, holistic, right brain problem solving. If you are physically tense or mentally distracted, your automatic mechanism cannot function. It can only operate effectively when you are in a relaxed state. Relaxation is an aid to health and problem solving as well as a necessary condition for the work of reprogramming your internal guidance system.

D. Necessity of Goal setting – we are engineered as goal seeking mechanisms. We are built that way. When we have no personal goal which we are interested in and which means something to us, we are apt to go around in circles, feel, lost, and find life itself aimless… people who say that life is not worthwhile are really saying that they themselves have no personal goals which are worthwhile. It doesn’t matter what your goals are, it only matters that you know what they are. There is a direct relationship between setting goals and achieving success, no matter what success might mean to you. The goals you establish determine your set point for success. There is a direct relationship between what you strive for and what you actually achieve. If you consciously establish a set point, your automatic mechanism has a tendency to adjust toward that set point. If you have no clear and specific goal - a definition of success on your own terms – printed on your subconscious mind, your set point is essentially zero. Everything you have done so far in your life has been the realization of goals, whether or not you are recognized them as such. And it is also very important to consider that our goal is specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound.

E. Rational Thinking – challenging oneself by asking basic questions such as is there any rational reason for false beliefs, could I make a mistake in this belief, would I come to the same conclusion about some other person in a similar situation and why should I continue to act and feel as if this were true if there is no good reason to believe it. So, after having an answer for those questions, one has to be rational and logical in the way he/she thinks by developing a rational thinking.

F. Learning From Mistakes – Not only do we incur emotional wounds from others, most of us inflict them up on ourselves. We beat ourselves over the head with self condemnation, remorse and regret. We beat ourselves down with self doubt. We cut ourselves up with excessive guilt. You make mistakes, mistakes do not make you. There is nothing you can do about your mistakes. Forgive yourself for them - it is the only way to avoid letting them negatively impact your present and future. Focus instead on your successes. The next time you find yourself kicking yourself for something that happened in the past, say cancel! Immediately replace the memory by focusing on one of your successes. And use your failure as an opportunity to draw lesson.

G. Shaping personality for success – A good personality is one which enables you to deal effectively and appropriately with environment and reality, and to gain satisfaction from reaching goals. Try to hear and appreciate what the other person is saying instead of reacting to the way it makes you feel. You will surprise at how much more information you receive if you actually listen instead of just thinking. Separate fact from fiction, be honest with yourself and listen to share information. Have a courage, acting boldly in the little things, such as pursuing your goals when faced with opposition from without and within, it can mean being willing to make mistakes and risk ridicule. It can mean consciously choosing new behavior. It can mean leveraging change. Be willing to make few mistakes, to suffer a little pain to get what you want, don’t sell yourself short. Further your own success by furthering others. If you don’t respect your own worth and importance, you are going to find it difficult to acknowledge anyone else’s. And if you frequently find yourself judging and condemning others for their opinions, attitudes and errors, it is probably a sign that you don’t think much of your own worthiness either. Self acceptance is also very important here. The most miserable and tortured people in the world are those who are continually straining and striving to convince themselves and others that they are something other than what they basically are. And there is no relief or satisfaction like that that comes when one finally gives up the shams and pretenses and is willing to be himself.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Those ideas which are mentioned above are important in that they can be easily practiced and are also under full control of ourselves. They are not as such difficult to implement and could be changed by utmost changing the image we have for ourselves. If these ideas are practiced in addition to many which could be obtained from other similar books, it could result in changing the attitude of many personalities which in one way or another could result in creating a better world where everybody value each other so that this could result in a good situation to change ones’ circumstance.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

Yes, the quote that I like most is…

‘’It doesn’t matter how many times you have failed in the past. What matters is the successful attempt, which should be remembered, reinforced, and dwelt up on.’’ Ch. 10, pp 251

This quote is very important not only to me, but also for anybody who wants to reach at higher goals. We, either consciously or unconsciously fell in blaming ourselves for the mistakes we did in the past rather than taking them as an opportunity to take lesson from it. So, this quote stresses the importance of taking past failures as a best opportunity to change our future rather than falling in pain of memorizing our wrong deeds.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

Yes, I have tried them and had found them helpful

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 8
B. How helpful were its contents? 8
C. How easy was it to understand? 7.5
D. Would you recommend it to others? 8
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 7.875

_____________________________________________________________

Napoleon Hill’s Keys to Success
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main Idea that has been elucidated in this book is how success could be achieved through the seventeen principles for personal achievement. It offers an instruction, insight and opportunities that help to improve one’s situation and become a better, more valuable person through those principles. It stresses the very importance of definiteness of purpose as a key to success and personal achievement. It shows how, establishing master mind alliance, using applied faith, going the extra mile, creating personal initiative, building positive mental attitude, controlling ones enthusiasm, thinking accurately, controlling ones attention, inspiring team work, learning from adversity and defeat, maintaining sound health, budgeting ones time and money and using cosmic habit force are all undivided are necessary in fully testing success.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Having A clearly Defined Purpose – as clearly stated in the book, every person who has achieved lasting success in this world has a definite major purpose. Each had a major plan for reaching that goal, and each devoted the greatest part of his/her thoughts and efforts to that end. Definiteness of purpose encourages specializing and specialization leads to perfection. It helps to budget time and money, to be alert to opportunities, to have a decision making capability, to build cooperation and etc. It makes one’s mind positive and frees it from limitations of doubt, discouragement, indecision and procrastination. No one can be successful without first knowing what is he/or she wants.

B. Cooperation, Teamwork, Forming a Master mind Alliance – this principle lets appropriate usage of the full strength of the experience, training and knowledge of other people just as if they were your own. And one can overcome any obstacles, no matter what ones education or talents are. Truly great minds have been reinforced through contact with others that allowed them to grow and expand. Selecting people for ones alliance merely because one like and know them is not important. Such people are valuable to somebody because they improve the quality of one’s life, but they are not necessarily suited to a master mind alliance. One must keep any thoughts of discord out of his/her alliance. There must be a complete meeting of the minds, without any reservations on the part of any member. Personal ambitions must be subordinate to the fulfillment and successful achievement of the definite of the alliance. Whatever personal obstacles one faces, he/ she must start getting to know the other side of ones personality that knows no obstacles, that recognizes no defeats. One has to cultivate a friendship with other him/her, so that no matter what he/she is doing, he/she is allied with someone who shares his/her goals. But what is very important here is the harmony of its members. One has to work constantly to strengthen the harmony of his/her many alliances. A crucial aspect of this effort is one’s ability to inspire harmony. Team work depends on relating oneself to others in such a way that they work with you willingly. It is up to you to supply the motives for that willingness and to be alert to any changes in it. It is a never ending process, and even though it depends on everyone involved, the responsibility for it lies with you.

C. Going the Extra mile –the book clearly advices to render more and better service than you are paid for, and sooner or later you will receive compound interest from your investment. It is inevitable that every seed of useful service you sow will sprout and reward you with an abundant harvest. The quantity and quality of the extra service you render will come back to you greatly multiplied. And until one starts to begin rendering more and better service than he/she is already being paid for, he/she is not entitled to any more pay. People who have pulled themselves out of the crowd and have included the priceless ingredients of going the extra mile and personal initiative in their service virtually write their own paychecks. It is a way of writing an insurance policy against the fear of poverty, against the fear of want and against competition from those who only go half way.

D. Building Positive Mental Attitude – nobody can benefit from any success principle unless it has a positive mental attitude. If one believes that his/her mind works with a positive mental attitude and believe that success is his/her right, ones belief will guide unerringly toward whatever the definition of success might be. Success attracts success while failure attracts failure. Striving for success makes you better be able to attain it. Doing nothing and accepting failure only bring more failure your way. If you adopt a negative mental attitude and fill your mind with thoughts of fear and frustration, your mind will only draw those same things to you. Recognize that your mental attitude is the only thing over which you... and only you... have complete control, and direct it by using PMA. Realize , and prove to your own satisfaction by making it so, that every adversity, sorrow, or defeat, whether or not you caused it to happen, contains the seed of an equivalent benefit which you can nurture in to blessing that soars above the disaster that brought it. Learn to close the door of your mind on all failures from your past. Clear your mind of any influence which doesn’t support a positive mental attitude. Reinforce the habit of tolerance, and keep an open mind on all subjects and toward all people no matter what their race or creed. Learn to like people no matter what their race or creed. Learn to like people just as they are, instead of demanding that they be just as you want them to be.

E. Alertness to Opportunities – As we are quick in seeing the failures of others, we have to look over the opportunities that circulates as so that we will benefit. There is no shortage or scarcity of opportunities rather our mental attitude towards it. So, we have to be conscious of it and try hard to use every opportunity we obtain.

F. Accurate Thinking – accurate thinkers never act on freely offered opinion without giving them the closest scrutiny; they permit no one to do their thinking for them. They obtain facts, information, and counsel from others, but they retain the right to accept or reject it in whole or in part. If one is an accurate thinker he/she cannot accept an opinion offered to him/her unless it is based on facts or sound hypothesis about facts. And also he/she should not offer any opinions except on the same grounds. One must rely up on his/her own judgment and be cautions no matter what is trying to influence him/her. If a statement does not seem reasonable or contradicts your experience, set it aside for further examination. One have to realize that some things contain facts while being colored, modified, or exaggerated, either intentionally or carelessly. The mind of an accurate is an external question mark. You must challenge everyone and everything that influences it. It also depends heavily on several other principles of success: definiteness of purpose, self discipline, prompt decision making, and a positive mental attitude

G. Controlling Your Attention – here there is a great message that teaches to forget an old saying that states’ don’t put all your eggs in one basket’. You have to put all your eggs in one basket and concentrate your attention on protecting that basket and getting it to the market. Controlled attention is the act of coordinating all the faculties of the mind and directing their combined power to a given end. Concentration up on a single idea has been the hallmark of success for countless people and organizations. Here one has to know and understand that defeat will be nothing but a signal for greater and more determined effort. It will be fuel to feed the fires of your will power. The difference between controlled and uncontrolled attention is great. You can feed your minds on thoughts which will produce what you desire, or you can neglect your mind, allowing it to feed on thoughts that will produce results you don’t desire. Your mind is never inactive, even in sleep. It constantly reacts to the influences which reach it. The object of controlled attention is to keep your mind busy through thoughts which will be helpful in attaining the object of your desires. If you neglect controlling your attention, your mind will become fixed on negative influences.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Those Ideas above all are very easy to be accepted and practiced in a daily life. For youngsters like me who strives to take a real change in his life, it is a mandate to take a lesson from such important books and try to practice it in a day to day life.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

Yes, it is stated as….‘’Acknowledge that the space you occupy in this world is in exact ratio to the quantity and quality of the service you render for the benefit of others, plus the mental attitude in which you render it’’Pp90

This quote has great importance as I exactly found it in a practical world. It is the value that we give for others that gives us more pleasure and happiness than we could do for ourselves. The mental attitude is the most critical word here as we sometimes provide a good service lacking the right mental attitude. And this result nothing more than loses of energy and power.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

8. Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read? 9.5
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 9.5
D. Would you recommend it to others? 10
E .What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.75

__________________________________________________________________

Success Through A Positive Mental Attitude
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The Main idea that the author has tried to Convey in this Book is how success could be obtained, with brief examples and histories from known Personalities, by using ones Positive Mental Attitude. It specifically tells every human being as to how to use the most magnificent machine ever conceived, a machine so awesome that only God himself could create, Mind. It instructs exactly what to do and how to do in order to tap the powers of your subconscious mind and put them to work for you. It is a book that has got admiration from many world class personalities as Og Mandino, renowned Motivational Speaker, Dr. Norman Vincent, Denis waitley & Rev.Robert H.Schuller. The book helps every understanding and willing mind how one can convert ones creative thinking, artistic talent, knowledge, personality, and Physical energy in to success, wealth and happiness. The book deeply shows from which the road to achievement begins, the mental bombshells for attacking success, keys to the citadel of wealth & how one could get ready and come in to action.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

There are several ideas mentioned in this book which are personally most important to me & anybody recognizing his failures & ready to change himself. Though many points could be listed down under this question, only seven of them has been listed;

A. Self Discovery – this book above all helps you to seek for who you are? Who exactly you look like in this world. It helps you discover & meet the most important living person.There is an invisible man talisman with all of us, one having the power to attract wealth, happiness, success and health. while the other having the power to rob all these things – to rob u of all that makes life worth living. From the many examples mentioned in this book I discovered who I am, where I want to go & how I could reach where I want.

B. Keep trying - success is achieved by those who keep trying with positive mental attitude. And unless ones goal is against the laws of God or the society, he/she can achieve it. One has everything to gain and nothing to loose by trying. Success is achieved and maintained by those who keep trying with Positive mental attitude. The success story of Tom Dempsey, who was born without half right foot and only stub of right arms. But after several trial with his crippled leg kicked a record breaking 63 yard field goal, The longest field goal ever kicked in a professional foot ball game.

C. Do it now - the secret of getting things done is to act. And the self starter is the self motivator Do it now!. As long as you live, never say to yourself, do it now unless you follow through with desirable action. Here it is shown that whenever action is desirable and the symbol do it now flashes from your subconscious mind to your conscious mind, immediately act. This helps to develop the habit of a reflex response so powerful that in times emergency or when opportunity presents itself, you will act.

D. Attracting Happiness - Abraham Lincoln says << It has been my observation that people are just about as happy as they make up their minds to be. There is very little difference in people, but the little difference makes a big difference. The little difference is attitude. The big difference is weather it is positive or negative has been stated in the book that one of the surest ways to find happiness for yourself is to devote your energies toward making some one else happy. If you share happiness, and all that's good and desirable, you will attract happiness to someone else, it will return to you many times over.

E. Motivation - it has been stated in this book that Motivation is like fire ,unless you continue to add fuel, it will go out. Motivation is that which induces action or determines choice. It is hope or other force which starts an action in an attempt to produce specific results. Motivating one self with Positive mental attitude, remembering.. what the mind of man can conceive and believe the mind of man can achieve with PMA. One has to know the ten basic motives enlisted in the book (self preservation, love, fear, sex, desire for life after death, freedom of body and mind, anger, hate, desire for recognition and self expression and the desire for material wealth) and work towards that. In addition to this one has to know that he/ she plays dual part in life in which he/she motivates others and they motivates us. So it is essential to know what motivates others and work towards that.

F. Ask God – what ever action taken to achieve success if supplemented by the will of God, could be successful. From the stories enlisted in the book, we can learn that who ever do all what's expected from him, keep on trying, and asks the divine help could achieve what he dreams. The history of S.B. Fuller teaches us that exerting all the efforts required & seeking the help of God has resulted him in success.

G. Write it down – this is the greatest point I have obtained from this book. It has been stated that, when you receive a flash of inspiration, write it down. And this might be the ingredient to allow you achieve your goal. The habit of establishing the habit of immediately writing down flashes of inspiration as they are communicated to you from the subconscious to the conscious.

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, why?

As a young man, I have to shape my destiny, I have to identify where I want to go and how I can reach it. As I need my worldly as well eternal life to be the happiest, i have to switch on the Positive mental attitude and turn off the Negative mental attitudes within me, avoid cobwebs of my mind, and try to benefit from the surrounding circumstances with PMA. In this book, I have read the history of many personalities who achieved what they want in life by using their PMA, Motivating themselves, making others happy from zero ground. And if the principles of success, wealth and happiness have been applied to everyones life, our world will be full of inspirational and motivated personalities who dream of change alone. This is because a willing and hopefully devoted mind will always think of the positive future.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

Many quotes have got my attention in this book . However all quotations could be summarized with the following( as per my understanding) ;

And unless your goal is against the law of God or society, you can achieve it. You have everything to gain and nothing to loose by trying. Success is achieved and maintained by those who keep trying with Positive mental attitude.

As I mentioned above, f an individual set definite goals in life and keep trying towards that, and if it is not against the interest of God or the community, there is nothing as to why it could not be achieved. And from this great quote one can learn that persistence on working and searching of the missing principle is the source of success, wealth and happiness.

5. Is there any thing in the book that you do not understand or are unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and, if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If, so did you complete all of the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Please Rate the following Questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is Poor

A. How interesting was it to read? 9.5
B. How helpful were its contents? 9
C. How easy was it to understand? 9
D. Would you recommend it to others? 9
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 9.125

______________________________________________________________________

As A Man Thinketh
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main idea that has been conveyed in this book is how thought has an influence in the overall life of an individual. It briefly shows, with examples, how individuals themselves are the makers of themselves, how a man is literally what he thinks, and his character being the complete sum of all his thoughts. It clarifies how our thought affects circumstances and {with an example, how a man’s mind may be likened to a garden, which may be intelligently, cultivated or allowed to run wild; but whether cultivated or not, results in something}, how it has effect on health and the body (i.e. how sickly thought express themselves through sickly body) & its factor in achievement. It also illustrates how thought has a relation with purpose {conceiving legitimate purpose in the heart and setting out to accomplish it. It emphasizes to make purpose as the centralizing point of thoughts. Be it spiritual ideal, or a worldly object, according to nature at the time being; but whichever it is, one should steadily focus his thought forces up on the object which he has set before him}. When expressing about treating one’s own thought it states, as the physically weak man can make himself strong by careful & patient training, so the man of weak thoughts can make them strong by exercising himself in right thinking.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

Actually a lot of ideas which were personally most important to me could be identified from this interesting book. Any way, as per your request, I have listed down only seven of them in the following manner;

- Right thinking – Because I really understood from this book that nothing has been happened by chance. As a man is what he thinks in his heart, right thinking is undeniable. As a young prospective leader, I need to think in a right way because unless I think rightly, it harms my overall character, circumstances, health, serenity and etc which may lead me to complete failure in life. It has been clearly stated in the book that, good thoughts and actions can never produce bad results; and bad thoughts and actions can never produce good results. More than that, a person who does not think in a right way suffers a lot. And, suffering as shown in the book is always the effect of wrong thought in some direction.

- Legitimate purpose – It was only if I have a goal and put away aimlessness and weakness that I can recognize my failure as one of the pathways to attainment, make all the conditions help me, think strongly, attempt fearlessly and accomplish masterfully. As clearly stated in the book, a man should make his purpose a supreme duty and should devote himself to its attainment, not allowing his thoughts to wander away in to fleeting fancies, longings and imaginings. This is taken as a royal road to self control and true concentration of thought. Even if one fails again and again to accomplish his purpose, the strength of character gained will be the measure of his true success; and this will form a new starting point for future power and triumph. So, having a legitimate purpose is really one of the vital things I have learned from this book.

- Having a vision and ideals – a person who has no vision does not know who he is and where he wants to be. He cannot know the insight of what he shall at last uncover. So to know who I want to be and where I want to be it is a must to have a vision and ideals. This will help me not to become as aphorism says ‘’for a person who does not know where to go, every road could be his path.’’

- Serenity /calmness of mind/ - as it has been stated in the book, serenity or calmness of mind is a quality of learning how to govern oneself, knowing how to be interpersonal, putting ones trust in individuals mind, to become one who others rely up on. I really understood from this book that serenity / calmness of mind is a must to have quality to attain what I personally desire.

- Deeper knowledge – I see & understand that little knowledge is harmful. And, judgments made in the light of superficial knowledge is really risky/erroneous/. We see in the book as how individuals may make a mistake when deciding in between the honest & the dishonest man. The situation when a dishonest man become rich, everybody thinking as if he is corrupt and the honest man lacking that fortune due to his honesty and virtuous quality, but which might not be.

- Avoiding Selfishness, Doubt & fear – because thoughts of doubt and fear as well as selfishness can never accomplish anything. Rather they result in complete failure in life. Selfishness in no way could be a means to success and help achieving what one desires, rather resulting in discontent and severe depression. So, it is very important for youngster like me to avoid these distructive thoughts.

- Self confidence – a person who lacks confidence for his self cannot make others work for him. He who has no confidence cannot lead anyone, cannot decide anything. So, lacking this best quality, I cannot attain anything in life.

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, why?

As I mentioned above, all the ideas which I have raised above has invaluable contribution to the beauty of my life. Being a right thinker widens scope of understanding, having legitimate purpose, vison and ideals shows me where to go and why I have to work, deeper knowledge makes me a mature man, avoiding selfishness, doubt and fear can enhance my productivity, self confidence can lead me to have unalterable decision. Calmness of mind would make my life sweaty and can make me a man who can contribute for his society, for his country and for the global world.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

Of course there are many statements which have got my attention. However from all those statements the following seems the best one;

‘’Thoughts of Doubt & Fear never accomplished anything and never can. They always lead to failure. Purpose, energy, power to do, and all strong thoughts cease when doubt and fear creep in.” Chapter Four, pp32

This statement gets my special attention as a virtue of what has happened in our office this year. There exist two best employees in our organization. One is Head of the Office, the other head of one department (in that office). They both Love and work happily with each other. As they work together, the head suspects the performance of department head outshining, seems to him as if he wins him in his day to day activities. And, this issue has lead head of the office to lose confidence, darken his face, decline his working capacity, and so much more. He further thinks that the guy is working against him and communicating with superiors about his low performance. The head start to demoralize this guy, accusing him of going to his families’ without permission, which in fact was not. The department head guy is surprised for seeing and hearing what he never expects from his lovely boss. After a discussion made in between them, it has been understood that, the head was in great doubt as to what this guy thinks about him, leading to failure in accomplishing his purpose and power to do. But, all this is doubt, the department head has nothing to do in all this suspects. So this statement has a lot in it to teach not me alone but so many others.

5. Is there any thing in the book that you do not understand or are unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and, if so, why?

Actually all what has been written in the book are really convincing, but on page 17 paragraph 2 it states about an employer who adopted crooked measure to increase profit, the writer is right in the since that employees needs to work happily, but as there are many mechanisms of increasing profit , the strategy may work for the employer. As this is another science… hope it is better replaced by another example.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If, so did you complete all of the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment on that was not covered in previous questions? If so, please comment

No, but I would like to comment that, as all the statements in the book are so interesting, additional examples need to be there. While there can be many more examples for each chapter, the author uses not many. Anyway, I expect much more could be obtained had there been illustrative examples.

Please Rate the following Questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is Poor

A. How interesting was it to read? 8
B. How helpful were its contents? 9
C. How easy was it to understand? 7
D. Would you recommend it to others? 8
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 8

_____________________________________________________________________________

Jonathan Livingston Seagull
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main idea that has been conveyed in this book is that anybody can reach where he wants to reach exerting all the efforts necessary. We have seen in this book that several challenges have faced Jonathan Livingston seagull, even from his family/ mother & father/, though patiently overpass them. It is Really a difficult task for an individual to think of what does not exist before, accepting all the abuses, all the challenges, persistently struggling, not giving up, not depressed, not demoralized and achieve it at the end. One may surprise as to why Jonathan Livingston seagull exhaust, besieged other than in search of food. Why it needs to be out casted from gull family? , but truth comes at the back when the dream has been actualized. How this young gull by pass the advises & commands of his mother and his father/, how he, when ordered to come at the center and hear he is on the wrong path/ though not as per his right thinking/ does not keep silent and downhearted?... it seems a mere dream, but right!. By passing all the above situations, Jonathan Livingston seagull has really achieved his dream. From this Great lesson it can surely understood that, one can reach where he wants.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

Once again a lot of ideas which were personally most important to me could be identified from this interesting book also. Any way, as per your request, I have listed only seven of them in the following manner;

- Clearly defined Goal – we have seen in this book that any body shall have to have a clearly defined goal in his life. It has been clearly shown that Jonathan Livingston seagull has set out his goals in life which he later achieves it. So, I, above all learned from this mini book that one have to know what he is doing and why? And finally he could reach it.

- Patience – just look at how much the advice of a mother his mother is, as stated in the book… why? Jon, why? His mother asked.’ Why is it so hard to be like the rest of the flock, Jon? Why can’t you leave low flying to the pelicans, the alhatross? Why don’t you eat? Son, you are bone and feathers!’’…. and his father said him …. See here Jonathan, winter isn’t far away. Boats will be few and the surface fish will be swimming deep. If you must study, then study food, and how to get it, this flying business is all very well, but you can’t eat a glide, you know. Don’t you forget that the reason you fly is to eat?’’… And remember also the case of standing to center … Jonathan Livingston seagull!’’ the elders words sounded in a voice of highest ceremony. Stand to center meant only great shame or great honor; stand to center for honor was the way the gulls’ foremost leaders were marked. Of course, he thought, the breakfast flock this morning; they saw the breakthrough! But I want no honors. I have no wish to be leader. I want only to share what I have found, to show those horizons out a head for us all. He stepped forward. … Jonathan Livingston seagull’’ said the elder,’’ stand to center for shame in the sight of your fellow gulls!’’… It has also been out casted from the gull family….look this all, Jonathan leavings ton seagull has achieved his goal by being patient. Hope this lesson has teaches me a lot and patience is one of the greatest things I learned from this book.

- Continuous trial / persistent effort/ – I have seen in this book that Jonathan leavingston seagull has failed many times, even up to the level to discontinue his journey, but not, he made a continues effort which results him to reach where he wants. I personally learn from this lesson that a man can reach where he wants if and only if he cannot lose hope and struggle persistently.

- Love of others - Though outcaste from the gull family, we see Jonathan Livingston seagull worrying and thinking for those who are on the land. Those who are unfortunate to see what he have discovered. For they are unlucky to become one out of the thousand gulls. He aspires for them to become just like him. It does not put in to consideration all the wrong decision they have made on him. From this I obtained a lot because though others may not think well about you, it shows me thinking good for them is far better than revulsion.

- Dream – Jonathan leavings ton dreams, a dream that has been actually defined. It is unquestionable that a man who sees the dream of Jonathan Livingston seagulls dream fulfilled could not move without a dream.

- Creativity – all what Jonathan Livingston did is a discovery of new thing. He can’t limit his potential to search for food alone. But he becomes creative, he exert his effort and finally achieved it. So, a person who sees this can never hesitate in accepting and trying to implement this quality.

- Self confidence – all what has been seen as a final remark in this mini book is the result of Jonathan Leavings tons’ self confidence. He believes that he can fly and can act more than seeking for food and he did it. Due to this fact it is clear that every body can do any thing, with self confidence the preliminary requirement above all.

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, why?

Actually I have expressed why all this are very essential in my life. How could one expect a satisfactory result or best achievement from an individual who has no clearly defined goal, patience, self confidence, a better dream? More than that, what can a person who has no love for others, who is unwilling to work persistently can contribute for his self, for his society, for the global world? , absolutely nothing! So whether I bee a man of my self or a man of global world, all the aforementioned qualities are a must to have.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

Of course there are many statements which have got my attention. However from all those statements the following seems the best in touching my heart;

‘‘…You must begin by knowing that you have already arrived…”

This simple and easy statement seems very short but it has a lot in it for me. I really impressed by this statement due to the fact that it holds many ideas in a squat form. A person who started by keeping in mind that he has already arrived cannot be hindered by anything that he may face on his path. His complete concentration was deep in to what he thinks has already achieved. Just like a person who digs the land, confidently assuring himself that he can find Gold could not see in to the dirt’s of the mad, the effort he will exert and all the other preliminary requirements. So, this is important to a person like me because, as a youngster, if I fear anything at its initial point, am sure I could achieve nothing .So it is more fruitful to begin by keeping in mind that I have already achieved it.

5. Is there any thing in the book that you do not understand or are unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and, if so, why?

Actually there is no any statement which I have not agreed with, but I think the contents where a little bit hard to understand for anybody whose English is a second language.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If, so did you complete all of the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment on that was not covered in previous questions? If so, please comment

No, I haven’t

Please Rate the following Questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is Poor

A. How interesting was it to read? 6
B. How helpful were its contents? 7
C. How easy was it to understand? 5
D. Would you recommend it to others? 5
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 5.75

_______________________________________________________________________

A Higher Standard of Leadership
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

This book uses the qualities that Gandhi exemplified, such as personal responsibility, truth, love, respect for individual, and courage to briefly describe how one can attain a higher standard of leadership. It exposes how he used a concept of heroic in its commitment to moral principles and services rather than one driven by the acquisition of power and mastering the forces of Violence. The book is not about Gandhi, rather the writer have tried to develop a leadership framework within which lessons drawn from his life can be used to bring the moral and spiritual dimension to leadership and guide us to higher standard.

2.  What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

i.  A Single Standard of Conduct - standard of leadership depends not only on the qualities and beliefs of our leaders but also on the expectations we have of them. We have been led to believe that there is one standard for private morality and conduct and another for public morality and conduct. We have come to accept that a lower moral standard is necessary to get things done in the real world of politics and business. This is the gospel of expediency - the double standard of conduct. It is fueled by the idea of winning at all costs: those results are the only things that count. It is hardly possible to find an individual who is committed to a single standard of conduct in private and public life. To increase and respect for leadership and for the system in which we live, we must acknowledge a single standard of conduct in both public and private life.

ii.  Spirit of Service - many of us has come to believe that leadership is the attainment of power. But as long as power dominates our thinking about leadership, we cannot move toward a higher standard of leadership. We must place service at the core; for even though power will always be associated with leadership; it has only one legitimate use: service.
Service oriented leadership doesn't mean you always do what people want. Service must be conducted within the bounds of moral values - it must be truthful service, you may not always tell people what they want to hear. You will have to tell them when you think they are wrong. One of the challenges of leadership is to develop harmony between service and the power that is necessary for the exercise of leadership. The ideal is power derived solely from service and used only for service.

iii. Truth - Gandhi, when defining Truth states that '' There should be truth in thought, Truth in speech and Truth in action.'' When truth controls action, we move toward complete congruence between words and deeds. To Gandhi, God was truth. In this sense he gave a religious meaning to the expression, '' you shall know the truth and truth shall make you free''.

iv. Non - violence - Non violence, for Gandhi is as equally as broad as that of Truth. For him, Non violence is not the rejection of violence; it was the positive love for all humanity. Violence encompasses all forms of exploitation, including discrimination and poverty. Hence nonviolence demands action, requiring work against all forms of exploitation. Protecting the environment, assisting the less fortunate, and putting an end to all forms of discrimination fit within the concept of nonviolence. It become self evident everyday that if we do not embrace Gandhi's ideal of non violence, societies all over the world will deteriorate to the point where life will be intolerable.

v.  Courage - Gandhi's journey on the path to a higher standard begin with a simple, courageous act performed when he was a young lawyer in South Africa. He was traveling in the first class compartment on a train, when the conductor came and asked him to leave because   '' coloreds'' were not allowed. He refused, insisting it was his right to travel first class because he had the appropriate ticket. He was forcibly thrown off the train. At that point, Gandhi felt he had to make a decision. Should he accept color prejudice as the way of life in South Africa and continue his legal work, or should he work to remove injustice? He made the decision to resist injustice. That's where his courageous act started.
When you exercise moral courage and do what you know is right, you may face adversity. Adversity comes in many forms: loss of friends, money, position, popularity, success. In some cases, doing what is right or not submitting to what you know is wrong can result in physical pain. Here, moral and physical courage come. So, each of us must have courage and take some individual responsibility for removing injustice if we want to improve the standard of leadership.

vi.  Reducing Attachments - All of us have attachments. Attachments are relationships, possessions, privileges, such as family and country which are desirable and have motivated people to do great things. However we need to acknowledge that attachments such as power, privilege, and possessions can make it difficult to maintain a higher standard of leadership.
Attachments can corrupt all levels of an organization. Our need for job and financial security might prevent us from speaking out against unethical conduct in the work process. We know that we ought to do, but our attachments prevent us from doing it, so we condone - and therefore - support bad leadership.

Once you have acknowledged that attachments to privileges and power can be a hindrance to the achievements of a higher standard of leadership, you can take steps to reduce them. Above all, as an individual committed to a higher standard, you must use power within the bounds set by your values and you have to be willing to risk the power you have to maintain your commitment to your values.

vii.  Benefit for all - Gandhi believed in the equality of all forms of labor. He developed and participated in the labor union movement and never asked any of his followers to do work he would not do himself. He believed that all religions were manifestations of truth and that people of different faiths should and could live in peace and harmony. He devoted a great part of his life to eliminating violence and promoting mutual respect and tolerance between Hindus and Muslims. He wanted to maintain an undivided India in which Hindus and Muslims could live in peace after independence - thus avoiding the creation of Pakistan. Even though he was unsuccessful in this regard, his aspiration reflects the belief he had in equality of peoples and the inner desire to work for the benefit of all other than certain segments of the population.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

True indeed, this book has helped me to understand how one becomes a servant and value based leader. The experience I gained from the life of this great man in the history of leaders has many important lessons in it. The way he passed through challenging situations keeping his values of truth and nonviolence was so amazing and full of lessons. For sure, these lessons will help me strengthen my professional quality.

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

'' Every step we take no matter how small - to understand the needs of the people we strive to serve will increase our bond with them and moves us in the direction of a higher standard of leadership'' pp 86

This quote helps me not to undervalue any acts of service I will provide to people. Hence attainment of a higher standard of leadership starts with small service that needs to be valued.

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No.

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.
Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read?             10
B. How helpful were its contents?             10
C. How easy was it to understand?             10
D. Would you recommend it to others?         10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?     10

 


How Successful Peoples Think
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

This book illustrates the many types of thinking that we need to have to be a winner. It is dedicated to many kinds of thinking that teaches you how to think. The writer states that he have studied successful people for forty years, and though the diversity you find among them is astounding, he have found that they are all alike in one way: how they think. That's the one thing that separates successful people from the unsuccessful ones. He believes that how people think can be learned so that one can easily change his life by changing the way he thinks.

2.  What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

i. Think Big - Big picture thinking can benefit any person in any profession. It brings wholeness and maturity to a person's thinking. It brings perspective. It is like making the frame of a picture bigger, in the process expanding not only what you can see, but what you are able to do. Big picture thinkers are never satisfied with what they already know. They are always visiting new places, reading new books, meeting new people, learning new skills. And because of that practice, they often are able to connect the unconnected. If you want to become a better big picture thinker, then become a good listener. You can find many big picture thinkers who aren't leaders, but you will find few leaders who are not big picture thinkers. Big picture thinkers don't let the grind to them, because they don't lose sight of the all important overview. They know that the person who forgets the ultimate is a slave to the immediate.

If you want to be a big picture thinker you have to go against the flow of the world. Society wants to keep people in boxes. Most people are married mentally to the status quo. They want what was, not what can be. They seek safety and simple answers. To think big picture, you need to give yourself permission to go a different way, to break new ground, to find new worlds to conquer.

ii. Creative Thinking - creativity is a pure gold, no matter what you do for a living. Annette Moser - wellman, author of the five faces of genius, asserts, '' The most valuable resource you bring to your work and to your firm is your creativity. More than what you get done, more than the role you play, more than your title, more than your output - its your ideas that matter.'' Creative thinking is not necessarily original thinking. Most often, creative thinking is a composite of other thoughts discovered along the way. Even the greatest artists, whom we consider highly original, learned from their masters, modeled their work on that of others, and brought together a host of ideas and styles to create their own work.

Creativity is about having ideas - lots of them. You will have ideas only if you value them. To foster creativity in yourself and others, you have to be willing to tolerate a little oddness. Creating additional thoughts is like taking a trip in your car. You may know where you are going, but only as you move toward your destination can you see and experience things in a way not possible before you started. It is being able to see what everybody else has seen and think what nobody else has thought so that you can do what nobody else has done.  Creativity is teachability. It is seeing more solutions than problems, and the greater the quantity of thoughts, the greater the chance for learning something new.

iii.  Be Strategic - Strategic thinking helps to plan, to become more efficient, to maximize ones strengths, and to find the most direct path toward achieving any objective. It is the bridge that links where you are to where you want to be. It gives direction and credibility today and increases your potential for success tomorrow. All good strategic thinkers are precise in their thinking. They try to match the strategy to the problem, because strategy isn't a one size fits all proposition. Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it in to small jobs. What you need to do in being strategic is to break down an issue in to smaller, more manageable parts so that you can focus on them more effectively.

iii.  Shared Thinking - we live in a truly fast -paced world. To function at its current rate of speed, we can't go it alone. Albert Einstein once remarked, '' many times a day I realize how much my own outer and inner life is built up on the labors of my fellow men, both living and dead, and how earnestly I must exert myself in order to give in return as much as I have received. Shared thinking leads to greater innovation. If you combine your thoughts with the thoughts of others, you will come up with thoughts you never had.

A person who values cooperation desire to complete the ideas of others, not compete with them. If someone asks you to share ideas, focus on helping the team, not getting a head personally. And if you are the one who brings people together to share their thoughts, praise the idea more than the source of the idea. If the best idea always wins, then all will share their thoughts with greater enthusiasm. Good leadership helps to put together the right people at the right time for the right purpose so that everybody wins. All it takes is the right people and a willingness to participate in shared thinking.

iv.  Unselfish Thinking - Few things in life brings greater personal rewards than helping others. When you spend your day unselfishly serving others, at night you can lay down your head with no regrets and sleep soundly. As Alan Loy remarked, '' There is no more noble occupation in the world than to assist another human being - to help someone succeed. Of all the qualities a person can pursue, unselfish thinking seems to make the biggest difference toward cultivating other virtues.

v.  Possibility Thinking - when you believe you can do something difficulty and you succeed, many doors open for you. If you open yourself to possibility thinking, you open yourself up to many other possibilities. People who think big attract big people to them. If you want to achieve big things, you need to become a possibility thinker. No matter what is your profession, possibility thinking can help you broaden your horizons and dream bigger dreams. The winners in life think constantly in terms of 'I can, I will and I am.' Losers, on the other hand, concentrate their waking thoughts on what they should have done, or what they don't do.'' If you believe you can't do something, then it doesn't matter how hard you try, because you have already lost. If you believe you can do something, you have already won much of the battle.

vi.  Realistic Thinking - Reality is the difference between what we see and what we wish for and what is. Actions always have consequences; realistic thinking helps you determine what those consequences could be. And that's crucial, because only by recognizing and considering consequences can you plan for them. If you plan for the worst case scenario, you can minimize the down side risk. Realistic thinking leads to excellence in leadership and management because it requires people to face reality. They begin to define their target and develop a game plan to hit it. When people engage in realistic thinking, they also begin to simplify practices and procedures, which results in better efficiency. Realistic thinking can dispel wrong attitude. There is nothing like staring reality in the face to make a person recognize the need for change. Change alone doesn't bring growth but you cannot have growth without change. When you approach a problem, strip yourself of preconceived opinions and prejudice, assemble and learn the facts of the situation, make the decision which seems to you to be the most honest, and then stick to it. It doesn't matter how sound your thinking is if it is bad on faulty data or assumptions.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

True indeed, this book has helped me to understand how to change one's own thinking. It illustrates how successful peoples think in a way that realize them achieve their goals. Hence, it shows me the possibility of changing my life through easy means's.

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

'' To foster creativity in yourself and others, be willing to tolerate a little oddness'' PP 25
''There is no life empty as the self centered life'' pp 105

Truly both quotes have an encouraging and empowering message that leads us to the right path of personal progress.

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read?             10
B. How helpful were its contents?             10
C. How easy was it to understand?             10
D. Would you recommend it to others?         10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?     10

 


 

The Power of Failure
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What  is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

This book is actually a book on a primary secret to success, how to harness the power of failure. It is filled with simple ideas about how to use failure in the short run to succeed on a long term basis, throughout a life time. It is written for anyone who would like to increase his or her awareness and ability to reap the rewards of the many inevitable failures that we all experience in our lives.

It is designed to provide simple yet profound ways to turn seeming failures in to successes. It contains practical prescriptions for successfully meeting some life's most common setbacks. The lessons of the book are organized in to four parts which includes redefining failure and success, winning through loosing, coping with failure and collaborating with failure.

The book does not advocate failure as an end in itself. Rather, failure as a means, an essential ingredient, to success living. The value of failure is in the learning and growth that provides. Without learning and growth, failure can be a destructive force in our lives. It is really about effective success, not success that leads to an inflated self image and complacency, but rather success as a way of living that benefits from all life has to offer.

2.  What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

i. Failure -Significant success requires failure, but Failure must be regarded in a whole new light. Failure is one of the most dreaded languages in the English language. The very idea of failure is enough to stop most people in their tracks. Sometimes failure is tied to a lack of competence to perform in the face of a specific challenge, but seeming failures can be a powerful way to learn and ironically provide the means for life's greatest breakthroughs and successes. But the only real failures occur when we back away from worthwhile challenges without even trying or when we refuse to learn from our setbacks.

The old definition of failure states that it is a negative, fatal and final result that indicates an inability to perform and a lack of success, a falling short because of ineptness, deficiency or negligence, a bad, bad thing that should be avoided, mourned and punished. But, the new definition is that failure is a short term unexpected result that reflects a challenge in progress and that provides a stepping stone to success, an opportunity for learning and development and an opportunity for creative change and innovation.

ii.  Success - success is early a magical idea for most people. The possibility of succeeding or becoming a success is an almost mythical pursuit. People love to be labeled as success and will often sacrifice greatly to achieve this end. The older perspective of success is that it is a revered shrine of achievement, an all positive final result indicating a superior ability that requires no further learning or change, Performance that is devoid of flaws, weakness or failures, a good, good thing that should be sought, celebrated and honored above all else. But, the new definition states that success is a new way of living founded on benefiting from all life has to offer that is a long term consequence of life improving results, an outcome of short term setbacks and failures and a process of continual development, learning and fulfillment in life.

The founder of Honda motor company once said, ''Many people dream of success. To me success can only be achieved through repeated failure and introspection. In fact success represents the one percent of your work that results from the ninety nine percent failures.''

iii.  Learning from Mistakes - A mistake is an event, the full benefit of which has not yet been turned to your advantage. Without doubt one of the most powerful pillars of long term success is learning from mistakes. The importance of learning from mistakes for achieving significant success is so widely recognized that it might almost seem unnecessary to mention. A challenging, well lived, and successful life will be filled with ups and downs. Growing as a person and addressing significant real world problems means we will surely fail some of the time, but if we learn from these failures and stay the course, we will eventually succeed.

If we concentrate on learning from every situation, especially those in which we seem to fail, we will continually move ahead. View short term failures as the building blocks for future success and concentrate on learning all you can from them rather than trying to make excuses or trying to cover up these temporary setbacks. The trick is to always move forward as you fail.

iv. Patience - if we want to ultimately succeed in a significant way, we need to accept and be patient with the learning and development that go along with facing challenges. The bridge between short term failures and ultimate success is challenging one, but it may well be the essential secret to success - it is patience.

v. Focus on Opportunities, not Obstacles - Focusing primarily on opportunities rather than obstacles, particularly in the failures we experience, is very important. Obstacle thinking is typically driven by fear of failure. Only by challenging these dysfunctional beliefs, so the reasoning goes, can a person successfully deal with a problem.
Elbert Hubbard said,'' The greatest mistake you can make in life is to continually fearing that you will make one.'' A successful corollary to this might be, '' if you want to be successful in life, continually fill your mind with opportunities, not obstacles, so that you will create them. Large term success is largely influenced by our capacity to withstand defeat and to focus on opportunities rather than obstacles.

vi.  Succeed at Win/Win, not Win/Lose - There are many ways to win. Some ways involve a heavy emphasis on our wishes and a use of power, intimidation, and even force to get what we want. This approach can be described as win/lose. Our gain is at the expense of others and in order for us to win, others must lose. Everyday life is also filled with potential win/lose situations such as disagreements, misunderstandings, or when more than one person wants the same thing - whether it is a last piece of sale clothing or to be chosen from many candidates for promotion in to a single open job position. Unfortunately, such win/lose encounters can be demoralizing and damaging to relationships. However, in win/win situation an attempt is made to satisfy the wishes of all involved, even if their views appear to be in opposition.

vii.  Help others win - Sometimes it is better to enjoy the victories of others. The real winners in life are those who have not only succeeded in their own effort but were able to look beyond themselves and help others win as well. If we help others get what they want, we usually get much of value for ourselves. By focusing on helping others get what they want, and not on your own personal gain, we stand to gain a great defeat.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

They show me that many successful people in the world have failed many times before they reach at their success. Hence, the lessons from this book helped me to redefine both failure and success so that I will use all opportunities to my own advantage.

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

'' If you want to be successful, double your failure rate.'' pp 15
This quote seems paradox if seen superficially. But, I have realized that the more a person fails, the more he progresses towards his goal.

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

One thing I have seen in the book is that, its contents are repeated and redundancy of the ideas are manifested in it.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No,

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read?               9
B. How helpful were its contents?             10
C. How easy was it to understand?             10
D. Would you recommend it to others?         10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?       9


The 21 Indispensable Qualities of A Leader
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

This book is written to help the readers recognize, develop and refine the personal characteristics needed to be a truly effective leader, the kind of people you want to follow. It stresses that understanding leadership and actually doing it are two different activities. It shows that leaders are effective because of who they are on the inside, in the qualities that make them up as people.

The writer states that everything rises and falls on leadership. And leadership truly develops from the inside out. If you can become the leader you ought to be on the inside, you will be able to become the leader you want to be on the outside. People will want to follow you. And then, you will be able to tackle anything in this world.

2.  What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

i.  Character - How a leader deals with circumstances of lie tells you many things about his character. Crisis doesn't necessarily make character, but it certainly does reveal it. Adversity is a cross roads that makes a person choose one of two paths: Character or compromise. Every time he chooses his character, he becomes stronger, even if that choice brings negative consequences. Your character determines who you are. Who you are determines what you see. What you see determines what you do. Character is all about the match on what you say and what you actually do.

ii.  Courage - A leadership position doesn't give a person's courage, but courage can give him a leadership position. Courage isn't the absence of fear. It is doing what you are afraid to do. It is having the power to let go off the familiar and forge ahead in to new territory. Martin Luther once remarked, '' The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands at times of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.'' Courage deals with principle, not perception. If you don't have the ability to see when to stand up and the conviction to do it, you will never be an effective leader.

iii.  Discernment - Discernment is the ability to find out the root of the matter, and it relies on intuition as well as a rational thought. If you can see the root issue of the problem, you can solve it. The closer a leader is to his area of gifting, the stronger his intuition and ability to see root causes. Hence, Discernment enables you to use both your gut and your head to find the best option for your people and your organization.

iv.  Generosity - Nothing speaks to others more loudly or serves them better than generosity from a leader. True generosity isn't an occasional event. It comes from the heart and permeates every aspect a leader's life, touching his time, money, talents, and possessions. Effective leaders, the kind that people want to follow, don't gather things just for themselves; they do it in order to give to others. It is hard for a person to be generous while he is not satisfied with what he has. Generosity rises out of contentment, and that doesn't come with acquiring more.
Millionaire John D. Rockefeller admitted, ''I have made millions, but they have brought me no happiness.'' If you are content with little, you won't be content with a lot. And if you are not generous with little, you won't suddenly change if you become wealthy.'' The measure of a leader is not the number of people who serves him, but the number of people he serves.

v.  Passion - Expert spend a lot of time trying to figure out what makes people successful. They often look at people's credentials, intelligence, education, and other factors. But more than anything, passion makes the difference. Your desire determines your destiny. Think of great leaders and you will be stuck by their passion. Gandhi for human rights, Winston Churchill for freedom, Martin Lither king for equality, bill gates for technology. Anyone who lives beyond an ordinary life has great desire. It is true in any field: weak desire brings weak results, just as small fire creates little heat. The stronger your life, the greater the potential.
Human beings are so made that whenever anything fires the soul, impossibilities vanish. A fire in the heart lifts everything in your life. That's why passionate leaders are so effective. A leader with great passion and few skills always outperforms a leader with great skills and no passion.

vi. Security - No one can live on a level inconsistent with the way he sees himself. You may have observed that in people. If someone sees himself as a looser, he finds a way to lose. Anytime his success surpasses his security, the result is self destruction. That's not only true of followers, but it is also true of for leaders.

Insecure leaders are dangerous, to themselves, their followers, and the organization they lead, because a leadership position amplifies personal flaws. Whatever negative baggage you have in life only gets more difficult to bear when you are trying to lead others. Just as people without skill cannot impart skill to others, people without security cannot make others feel secure. And for a person to become an effective leader, the kind that others want to follow, he needs to make his followers feel good about themselves.

Insecure people are on a continuous quest for validation, acknowledgement, and love. Because of that, their focus is on finding security, not instilling it in others. They are primarily takers not givers, and takers do not make good leaders.

vii. Servant hood - Servant hood is not about position or skill. It is about mental attitude. You have undoubtedly met people in service positions who have poor attitudes toward servant hood; the rude worker at the government agency, the waiter who can't be bothered with taking your order, the store clerk who talks on with a friend instead of helping you. The first mark of servant hood is the ability to put others a head of yourself and your desires. It is more than being willing to put your agenda on hold. It means intentionally being aware of your people's needs, available to help them, and able to accept their desires as important.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

How we treat others is really a reflection of how we think about ourselves. The remarkable thing is that we really love our neighbors as ourselves; we do unto others as we do unto ourselves. We hate others when we hate ourselves. We are tolerant towards others when we tolerate ourselves. We forgive others when we forgive ourselves. It is not love of self but hatred of self which is at the root of the troubles that afflict our world.

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

'' Money is a wonderful servant but a terrible master. If it gets on top and you get under it, you will become its slave.'' pp 63

I have realized that we as human beings always run to get money. We do a lot of good and bad to get as much as we can. But what is worrying is that we finally fail to achieve what we want. Even sometimes we become a slave of money. Hence our life comes to disaster.

'' The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands at times of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.' Pp 40

Really this happens many times in our life. What we do in comfortable moments and uncomfortable moments are sometimes different. So that this quote can help me to define who I am and how I react to different situations in different situations.

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

No

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No.

7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.
Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A. How interesting was it to read?             10
B. How helpful were its contents?             10
C. How easy was it to understand?             10
D. Would you recommend it to others?         10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?     10


Long Walk to Freedom
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The main objective of the book is to show the liberation struggle of the South African people. In so doing, it discloses the leadership quality demonstrated by Nelson Mandela in pushing forward the mission set by him and his organization. The book shows the policy followed by Mandela, alike other extremists who want a revenge strategy against whites. It shows the price to be paid for freedom. It teaches that no sacrifice was too great in the struggle for freedom. The book shows that Mandela is man who was not only a leader of ANC; rather he was a promoter of unity, an honest broker, a peacemaker and a forgiver. Throughout the book, it can be understood that the struggle was a struggle of the African people, inspired by their own suffering and their own experience. It is a struggle for the right to live.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

A. Imagination

Mandela was man who had never been a soldier, who had never been fought in battle, who had never fired a gun at an enemy, had been given the task of starting an army. He believes that there is nothing as dangerous as a leader making a demand that he knows cannot be achieved. It creates false hope among the people. He had a true imagination that whether they win or whether they die, freedom will rise in Africa like the sun from the morning clouds. As ANC, they had from the first maintained that what we had done, we had done proudly, and for moral reasons.

When he had been young, the people of Qunu were not political at all; they were unaware of the struggle for African rights. People accepted life as it was and did not dream of changing it. But, his and friends determination and imagination ahs pushed the people forward, towards peace, freedom and prosperity of the South Africans. And even, after being freed from prison, he tells to the people that, they had decided instead to offer them a vision of South Africa we hoped to create. We wanted people to vote for ANC not just because we had fought Apartheid for eighty years, but because we were best qualified to bring about the kind of South Africa they hoped to live in. I felt that our campaign should be about the future, not the past.
 
B. Determination and Commitment

I have learned that Mandela’s determination to his cause, to the cause of this people. When presented in front of court, he explain to the court how and why he had become the man he was, why he had done what he had done, and why, if given chance he would do it again. He was determined enough in telling the court that he was made, by law, a criminal, not because of what he had done, but because of what he stood for, because of what his thought, because of his conscience. This is the reality for which he was committed enough and shows genuine determination.

  1. Selfless Service

Mandela told us in his book that a man involved in the struggle is a man without a home life. His mother has died while he was at prison; he could able to kiss the hands of his wife after 21 years in prison. There were times while he was in prison and could only give a wide smile to his beloved wife. He wrote her a letter indicating how much he care for her, how unshakable their bond was, how courageous she was. He saw his letters both as love letters and as the only way he could give her emotional support she needed. More bitterly feeling, he said about his dead mother that ‘A mother’s death causes a man to look back on and evaluate his own life. Her difficulties, her poverty, made me question once again whether he had taken the wrong path. That was always the conundrum; had I made the right choice, in putting the peoples’ welfare before that of my own family? For a long time, my mother had not asked for or even wanted to be involved in the struggle, but my involvement penalized them.’ But he came back to the same answer. In South Africa, it is hard for a man to ignore the needs of the people, even at the expense of his own family. He had his choice, and in the end, she had supported it. But that did not lessen the sadness he felt at not being able to lay her to rest. This all manifests how much this man was giving priority to the cause of others other than his own and his closest family and relatives.

He said, “No matter what I suffered in my pursuit of freedom, I always took strength from the fact that I was fighting with and for my own people.” Speaking about the moment he met his daughter, Zindzi when she came to visited him, he said, “I had not seen Zindzi since she was three years old. She was a daughter who knew her father from Old photograph rather than memory. Zindzi was shy and hesitant at first. I am sure it was not easy for her to finally see her father she had never really known, a father who could love her only from a distance, who seemed to belong not to her but to the people. Somewhere deep inside her she must have harbored resentment and anger for a father who was absent during her childhood and adolescent. But, that all was a price paid for the benefit of others.”

“After my Last stop in Africa, I flew to stockhold to visit Oliver. Seeing my old friend and law partner was the reunion I most looked forward to. Oliver was not well, but when we were two young boys in the field who took strength from our love for each other. We began by talking of old times, but when we were alone, the first subject he raised was the Leadership of the organization. Nelson, he said, you must now take over as president of ANC. I have been merely keeping the job warm for you. I refused, telling him that he had led the organization in exile far better than I ever could have. It was neither fair nor democratic for a transfer to occur in such a manner, I said. Let us wait for an election; then the organization can decide. Oliver protested, but I would not budge. It was a sign of his humility and selflessness that he wanted to appoint me a president, but it was not in keeping with the principles of the ANC.”
D. Friendship

Mandela beliefs that he had been privileged throughout his political life to fight alongside collogues whose liabilities and contributions were far greater than his own. He speaks as if many others had paid the price of their beliefs before him, and many more would do so after him. Robben Island was known as university because of what they learned from each other. They became their our own faculty, with their own professors, their own curriculum, their own courses. Hence, they made a distinction between academic studies, which were official, and political studies, which were not.

Indicating about the love and friendship he has for Oliver he said that In Plato’s allegory of the metals, the philosophers’ classify men in to groups of gold, silver and lead. Oliver was pure gold; there was gold in his intellectual brilliance, gold in his warmth and humanity, gold in his tolerance and generosity, gold in his unfailing loyalty and sacrifice. As much as I8 respected him as a leader, that’s how much I loved him as a man. Though we had been a part for all the years that I was in prison, Oliver was never far from my thoughts. In many ways, even though we were separated, I kept up a lifelong conversation with him in my head. It is after the death of Oliver feels like the loneliest man in the world.

E. Optimism and Hope

Being in prison Mandela was never seriously considered the possibility that he would not emerge from prison one day. He never thought that a life sentence truly meant life and that he would die behind bars. Perhaps he was denying this prospect because it was too unpleasant to contemplate. But he always knew that someday he would once again feel the grass under his feet and walk in the sunshine as a free man. He was fundamentally an optimist. Whether that comes from nature or nurture, he cannot say. Part of being his optimism is keeping one’s head pointed towards the sun, one’s feet moving forward. There were many dark moments when his faith in humanity was sorely tested, but he would not and could not give himself up to despair. That way laid defeat and death. Once his family visited him in prison. The visit has a special purpose and that it was for Mandela to choose a name for the child. It is a custom for the grandfather to select a name, and the one he had chosen was Zaziwe – which means “Hope.” The name had special meaning for him, fur during all his all years in prison hope never left him – and now it never would. He was convinced that this child would be a part of a new generation of South Africans for whom Apartheid would be a distant memory – that was his hope and dream.
 
F. Loyalty

Mandela was a man who was loyal both to his organization and his people. He believed that as they told the people what they would do, he felt they must also tell them what they couldn’t do. Many people felt life would change overnight after a free and democratic election, but that would be far from the case. Often he said to the crowds, Do not expect to be driving Mercedes the day after election or swimming in your own backyard pool.   He told their supporters, “Life will not change dramatically, except that they will have increased their self esteem and become a citizen in their own land.” They must have patience. They might have to wait five years for results to show. He challenged them, he didn’t patronize them. ‘If you want to continue living in poverty without clothes and food,’’ he told them, ‘then go back and drink in shebeens. But if you want better things, you must work hard. We cannot do it all for you; you must do it yourselves. He once reassures ANC in general and Oliver in particular that his loyalty to the organization was beyond question. He once addressed the people that he stands before them not as a prophet but as a humble servant of people. He informed them that their tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for him to be here today. He said, “I therefore place the remaining years of my life at your hands.” When once asked about the role he would play in his organization, he told the press that he would play whatever role ANC ordered.
The comment he received after he made a speech at one moment which he put it inside his book, was the indicator of how much he is loyal, even at issues that are offensive. The comment he received said, “I am very glad that you are free, and that you are back among your friends and family, but your speech yesterday was so boring.”

G. Forgiveness

Mandela told the whites that they needed them and did not want them to leave the country. They were South Africans like them and this was their land, too. He would not mince words about the horrors of apartheid, but he said, over and over, that they should forget the past and concentrate on building a better future for all. He stressed that he wanted South Africa a place where he loved even his enemies while he hated the system that turned them against one another.
 
3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Just, no more to say, Reading this Book, I realized what it means by Genuine Leadership and authentic approach to the cause of the people. His unshakable stand, even in un necessity of revenging the whites, rather taking a lesson from the past and move forward humanly is truly more than what words could explain.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

“A man must have to suffer in silence.”

“I will not leave south Africa, nor will I surrender. Only through hardship, sacrifice and militant action can freedom be won.”

“The air of one’s home always smells sweet after one has been away.”

“But the human body has an enormous capacity for adjusting to trying circumstances. I have found that one can bear the unbearable if one keeps one’s spirits strong even when one’s body is being tested. Strong convictions are the secret of surviving deprivation; your spirit can be full even when your stomach is empty.”

“I am not a messiah, but an ordinary man who had became a leader because of extraordinary circumstances.”

“No matter what I suffered in my pursuit of freedom, I always took strength from the fact that I was fighting with and for my own people.”

“If I emerged from Prison in to the same circumstances in which I was arrested, I would be forced to resume the same activities for which I was arrested.”

“There are times when a leader must move out a head of the flock, go off in a new direction, confident that he is leading his people the right way.”
 
 5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

Not at all

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No,

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                        10

B.  How helpful were its contents?                       10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                      10

D. Would you recommend it to others?                10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it? 10

 


 The Leadership Pill: The Missing Ingredient in Motivating People Today

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?  

This book deals with how one can become a more successful manager, a strong team leader and a motivator who gets the best results from a group. It shows business managers at any level how to apply the right techniques for getting both results and the commitment of their people, even when the pressure to perform is high. It is a fun parable that underscores the need for leaders to show integrity, build a culture of partnership, and affirm peoples’ sense of self –worth by letting them know what they do is important. It helps to discover what it really takes to become an effective leader. It contains extracts from the lessons of result oriented leaders like Patton, Napoleon and Attilla the hun. It is a powerful combination of ingredients necessary for succeeding in effective leadership. The Leadership pill enhances one’s ability to lead. When one takes the leadership pill, he/she become more task focused and action oriented. One’s ability to direct others and get result increases. Ultimately, the leadership pill works fast, putting ourselves in control as a leader. There is nothing quite like it.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?  

Trust 

Many of us know and believe that trust is one of the important qualities we need from our leaders. As stated in the book, the parable goes like the employees have observed people use the leadership pill and find they are concerned only about getting results. However, truly effective leaders are those who win the trust and respect of their team members. They are those who excel at empowering others and letting them know that what they do is important honestly. All of the money, recognition and power seems to move up hierarchy, away from the people who do all of the work and who are closest to the customer. At any instance followers wish that their leaders would tell us them the truth. This implies how much they believe that honesty is the best quality that they want to see in their leader. Nobody wants to be lied, we all wants to hear the truth. This is because it’s difficult to expect a result from an environment that falls deep in cheating and laying one another. Especially if leaders are the spearheads of lies and dishonesty, it’s just a clear manifestation of organizations move to a severe decline.

B. Partnership 

Partnership is all about bringing all the efforts, all the resources and potential of a team towards the achievement of organizational or any other types of objectives. It is gaining the willingness, the commitment and determination of members of a team to contribute all what is expected of them for the realization of preset objectives. Honest and truly co9mmitted Leaders are those who help their people work, learn and grow together in unity. Through this way, they can get the benefit of partnership as it enables the organization to harvests the potential. 

C. Affirmation 

Affirmation is all about getting thanked too much, it’s just making people feel that they are very important the organization, just to make them feel that they are valued. It lets people know that what they do is important and their contribution to their organization is invaluable. Leadership is not something you do to people; it is something you do with them. So, any leader has to know with whom he is working and how each of the members is contributing towards the attainment of organizational objectives. Profit is the applause you get for taking care of your customers and creating motivating environment for your people. As a leader the time you spoke to your employers, followers and customers shall not be when something went wrong. Good leaders get to know who its people are, not only their names even beyond their job titles. They find out what makes each individual unique in the team.

D. Integrity 

All the surveys show that the number one thing people want in a leader is integrity. Integrity is about creating a set of operating values and then living true to them. When leaders’ actions embody the organizations values, the result is a value driven culture. This is the essence of integrity – the first ingredient of the secret blend. Integrity lays the foundation for trust and respect. We are so concerned about pushing our own agendas and protecting our own interest that we forget we are on the same team. The first step in moving toward the culture of integrity is to build an infrastructure of trust and respect. Integrity has many more to do with organizational success; it’s all about doing and speaking the right think even at a situation and events where no one is watching. It’s being abided by the principles that are stated either on organizational guideline or personal mission statement.

E. Importance of Time 

Time is the number one most important and decisive factor that can determine the success or failure of an organization. Other than other resources any organization can posses, time is one which cannot return back ones it has gone. Being an effective leader is all about effectively utilizing this resource. It unquestionable that it takes time to be truly effective when you are in charge of a team. So success is all about having enough time to get results. It takes time to be truly effective when you are in charge of a team.

F. Commitment

 Leading effectively is more than just getting results. It means getting the commitment of the team. Many leaders focus only on results part and forget about their people. They bang people until the job gets done. Their definition of success is the teams’ short term output. The true test of leadership, on the other hand, is to win the trust and respect of the team, keep their motivation running high, and help them reach greater heights. As a result the team will work together and consistently perform well over time – even if the leader is not around. High performing teams cannot slow down those who fail to live up to their commitments. People who don’t do what they say they are going to do are showing a lack of respect for the rest. This indicates lack of commitment, not to act towards the attainment of organizational objectives. Commitment is all about personally equipped and being ready to act. And even one can’t be effective unless all does their part from a self leadership perspective. 

G. Action 

Its has become a custom that many of the so called leaders are smart enough when speaking in front of the public, in front of the followers. However, many of them fall short of action and application of their speech. Leaders have to walk their talk. As can be seen in the book, it’s when top management tells us there won’t be any layoffs and then three weeks later half of the project team is collecting unemployment that what it means by action and walking the talk can be clearly understood. Great companies are the provider of choice, the employer of choice and the investment of choice. There is a powerful link between a motivated team and a team that consistently has solid productivity. 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how? 

Even if I am not as such inspired a lot by the book, I believe that I get some new concepts that can help me in empowering myself and strengthening my leadership capacity.

4. Quotes: Are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?  

“Leading people is the opposite of trying to control them.” 

“Leadership is not just what happens when you are there; it’s what happens when you are not there.” 

“Leadership is not something you do to people, it’s something you do with them.” 

“Each of us has the power to recognize the goodness in others.” 

“Great companies are the provider of choice, the employer of choice and the investment of choice.” 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why? 

Of course I do agree that this book has an interesting nature as it’s written in an attracting way, however as far as my knowledge and understanding of Leadership is concerned, I have seen that this book bypassed many important qualities an ideal leader is supposed to have. I do agree that Integrity, partnership and affirmation are the very important qualities expected from a leader. However, limiting it to this only will not bring the change we aspire for. Many of the books like Leadership for Dummies, Essential qualities of a Leader and many others have incorporated all the ingredients that a leader needs to have. Hence, this book falls short of many important and key secrets of becoming an effective leader.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful? 

No. 

I actually love the way the book is organized, but I believe that many leadership qualities needs to be incorporated to make the book complete. 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

  A.  How interesting was it to read?                      7
B.  How helpful were its contents?                       8
C.  How easy was it to understand?                      8
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                6
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?      7


 

Emotional Intelligence

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1.  What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book? 

In this book, the author is fully dedicated in enabling the readers to understand the basic concepts of emotion, intelligence and intellect. It writes the book to serve as a guide in a journey through scientific insights in to the emotions, a voyage aimed at bringing greater understanding to some of the most perplexing moments in our lives and in the world around us. The journeys end is to understand what it means and how to bring intelligence to emotion. Drawing on groundbreaking brain and behavioral research, the author shows the factors at work that shows when people of high IQ flounder and those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. These factors, which include self-awareness, self-discipline, and empathy, add up to a different way of being smart – and they aren’t fixed at birth. From the book one can understand that although shaped by childhood experience, emotional intelligence can be nurtured and strengthened throughout adulthood – with immediate benefits to our health, our relationships and our work.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you? 

 

i. The Emotional/Rational Mind Dichotomy

 

Rational and Emotional minds are two fundamentally different ways of knowing to interact to construct our mental life. The rational mind is the comprehension of what we are typically conscious of: more prominent in awareness, thoughtful, able to ponder and reflect. But alongside there is another system of knowing; impulsive and powerful, if sometimes illogical – the emotional mind. The emotional/rational approximates the folk distinction between heart and head; knowing something is right is a different order of conviction – somehow a deeper kind of certainty – than thinking so with your rational mind. There is a steady gradient in the ratio of rational – to emotional control over the mind; the more intense the feeling, the more dominant the emotional mind becomes – and the more ineffectual the rational. This is an arrangement that stems from eons of evolutionary advantage to having emotions and intuitions guide our instantaneous response in situations where our lives are in peril – and where pushing to think over what to do could cost our lives.

 

These two minds, the emotional and the rational, operate in tight harmony for the most part, intertwining their very different ways of knowing to guide us through the world. Ordinarily there is a balance between emotional and rational minds, with emotion feeding in to and informing the operations of the rational mind, and the rational mind refining and sometimes vetoing the inputs of the emotions. Still the emotional and rational minds are semi-independent faculties, each reflecting the operation of distinct, but interconnected circuitry in the brain. In a sense we have two brains, two minds and two different kinds of intelligence. How we do in this life is determined by both – it’s not just IQ, but emotional intelligence that matters. Indeed, intellect cannot work at its best without emotional intelligence.

 

ii. Amygdala 

 

Amygdala acts as a storehouse of emotional memory, and thus of significance itself; life without amygdala is life stripped of personal meanings. All passions of human beings depend on it. Tears, an emotional signal unique to human beings are triggered by the amygdala and a nearby structure, the cingulate gyrus; being held, stroked or otherwise comforted soothes these same brain regions, stopping the sobs. Without amygdala, there are no tears of sorrow to soothe. As the repository for emotional memory, the amygdala scans experience, comparing what’s happening now with what happened in the past. Its method of comparison is associative; when one key element of a present situation is similar to the past, it can call it a match – which is why this circuit is sloppy; it acts before there is full confirmation. It frantically commands that we react to the present in ways that were imprinted long ago, with thoughts, emotions, reactions learned in response to events perhaps only dimly similar, but close enough to alarm the amygdala.

 

iii. Emotional Intelligence 

 

Emotional intelligence is described as having five domains. First, knowing one’s own emotions and feelings – recognizing a feeling as it happens – it is the keystone of emotional intelligence. It is the ability to monitor feelings from moment to moment is crucial to psychological insight and self-understanding. Second it’s about managing emotions, handling feelings so that they are appropriate to soothe one self, to shake off rampant anxiety, gloom or irritability – and the consequence of failure at this basic emotional skill. People who are poor in this ability are constantly battling feelings of distress, while those who excel in it can bounce back far more quickly from life’s setbacks and upsets. Third is motivating oneself, is all about marshaling emotions in the service of a goal for paying attention, for self-motivation and mastery and for creativity. Fourth is recognizing emotions in others, is about being more attuned to the subtle social signals that indicate what others need. Fifth is the ability to manage relationships, is all about managing emotions in others. These are the abilities that undergird popularity, leadership and interpersonal effectiveness. People who excel in these skills do well at anything that relies on interacting smoothly with others; they are social stars.

 

iv. IQ Vs EI

 

These two concepts are not opposing competencies but rather separate ones. We all mix intellect and emotional acuity, people with a high IQ but low emotional intelligence (or low IQ and high emotional Intelligence) are, despite the stereotypes, relatively rare. Indeed, there is a slight correlation between IQ and some aspects of Emotional Intelligence – though small enough to make clear these are largely independent entities. Unlike the familiar tests for IQ, there is, as yet, no single paper – and - pencil test that yields an emotional intelligence score, and there may never be one. All of us mix IQ and EI in varying degrees. But they offer an instructive look at what each of these dimensions adds separately to a person’s qualities. To the degree a person has both cognitive and emotional intelligence, these pictures merge. Still, of the two, emotional intelligence adds far more of the qualities that make us more fully human.

 

v. Meta-mood, Self Awareness

 

As stated in the book, it might seem at first glance that our feelings are obvious, more thoughtful reflection reminds us of times we have been all too obvious to what we really felt about something, or awoke to these feelings late in the game. Psychologists use the rather ponderous term meta-cognition to refer to an awareness of thought process, and Meta-mood to mean awareness of one’s own emotions. Meta-mood is an ongoing attention to one’s internal status. Self-awareness would seem to require an activated neo cortex, particularly the language areas, attuned to identify and name the emotions being aroused. Self-awareness is not an attention that gets carried away by emotions, overreacting and amplifying what is perceived. Rather it is a neutral mode that maintains self-reflectiveness even amidst turbulent emotions. Self-awareness is being aware of both our mood and our thoughts about that mood. It can be a nonreactive, non-judgmental attention to inner state. Self - awareness has a more powerful effect on strong, aversive feelings.

 

Mayor finds that people tend to fall in to distinctive styles for attending to and dealing with their emotions:

 

Self - Aware – those who are aware of their moods as they are having them, these people understandably have some sophistication about their emotional lives. Their clarity about emotions may undergird other personality traits; they are autonomous and sure of their own boundaries, are in good psychological health, and tend to have a positive outlook on life. When they get in to bad mood, they don’t ruminate and obsess about it, and are able to get out of it sooner.

Engulfedthese are people who often feel swamped by their emotions and helpless to escape them, as though their moods have taken change. They are mercurial and not very aware of their feelings, so that they are lost in them rather than having some perspective. As a result, they do little to try to escape bad moods, feeling that they have no control over their emotional life. They often feel overwhelmed and emotionally out of control.

Accepting while these people are often clear about what they are feeling, they also tend to be accepting of their moods, and so don’t try to change them. There seem to be two branches of the accepting type: those who are usually in good moods and so have little motivation to change them and people who, despite their clarity about their moods, are susceptible to bad ones but accept them with a laissez - faire attitude, doing nothing to change them despite their distress – a pattern found among, say, depressed people who are resigned to their despair.

 

vi. Emotional Blankness/Alexithymia

 

A situation when one, despite being intelligent, thoughtful and successful, is unable to express his/her feeling about something.  People with emotional blankness lack words for their feelings. Indeed, they seem to lack feelings altogether, although this may actually be because of their inability to express emotion rather than from an absence of emotion altogether. These people give the impression of being different, alien beings, having come from an entirely different world, living in the midst of a society dominated by feelings. It is not lack of having a feeling rather it is being unable to know – and especially unable to put in to words – precisely what their feelings are. They are utterly lacking in the fundamental skill of emotional intelligence, self - awareness – knowing what we are feeling as emotions roil within us. As Henry Roth observed in his novel ‘Call It Sleep’ about this power of language, “if you could put words to what you felt, it was yours.” The corollary, of course is the emotional blankness (alexithymics’) dilemma: having no words for your feelings means not making the feelings your own.

 

vii. Artful Critique

 

An artful critique is a type of constructive criticism that focuses on what a person has done and can do rather than reading a mark of character into a job poorly done. As someone with a name Larson observes, “A character attack – calling someone stupid or incompetent – misses the point. You immediately put him on the defensive, so that he/she is no longer responsive to what you have to tell him/her about how to do things better. In terms of motivation, when people believe that their failures are due to some unchangeable deficit in themselves, they lose hope and stop trying. The basic belief that leads to optimism is that setbacks or failures are due to circumstances that we can do something about to change them for the better. As the criticizer is expected to have empathy while giving critics, the receiver has to see criticism as valuable information about how to do better, not as a personal attack. People need to see criticism as an opportunity to work together to solve a problem, not as adversarial situation.

 

Harry Levinson, a psychoanalyst, gives the following advice on the art of the critique which is intricately entwined with the art of praise:

Be Specific – focus on the specifics, saying what the person did well, what was done poorly, and how it could be changed. Don’t beat around the bush or be oblique or evasive, it will muddy the real message.

Offer a Solution – The critique, like all useful feedback, should point to a way to fix the problem. Otherwise, it leaves the recipient frustrated, demoralized and demotivated.

Be Present – critiques, like praise, are most effective face to face and in private.

Be Sensitive – this is a call for empathy, for being attuned to the impact of what you say and how you say it on the person at the receiving end. If you lacks empathy while criticizing others, its effect will be destructive, instead of opening the way for a corrective, it creates an emotional backlash of resentment, bitterness, defensiveness and distance.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? 

 

The concepts in this book, though roughly discussed in the previous books I have assessed, are full of new concepts related to Emotional Intelligence. Many of the ideas in this book are amazingly interesting and helpful to control one’s own feelings in a way that could enable everyone to change his inner and outer world.

 

Before reading this book, I feel like Knowledge and Intellect is on top of leading and influencing peoples towards the better. I believe smart peoples are those who are smart in their academic and work life, those who score above others in schools and universities, those winning award in different scenarios. However, going through this smart, semi complex evidence based Daniel Goleman’s book, I have realized that Intellect alone is not a path to pass through different moments in life. Rather, Emotional Intelligence, the capacity for self - awareness, self - management, self - motivation, understanding others feelings and emotions and managing them.

 

4.  Quotes; - are there any statements which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you? 

 

“To recognize a foul mood is to want to get out of it.” 

 

Helps me in realizing that even understanding my faulty moments can help in getting out of it

 

“If you could put your words to what you felt, it was yours.” 

 

Tells me that, unless I said what is in me, it has nothing to do with me

 

“Downs as well as ups spice life, but need to be in balance.” 

 

Teaches me that Challenges are important for growth and advancement

 

“When a person’s words disagree with what is conveyed via his tone of voice, gesture or other non-verbal channel, the emotional truth is in how he says something rather than in what he says.” 

 

Shows me that the truth is what is inside, and even if we may say something different from what we are feeling inside, it can be observable in the way we say it, so this quote teaches me to be congruent in what I say and feel.

 

“If you try to dominate people, you are already defeated.”

 

From this I learned that, I am one among many, not a unique creature having all qualities. It shows me that we are all interdependent in life and it’s important to cooperate, than to undermine others.

 

“The emotions of prejudice are formed in childhood, while the beliefs that are used to justify it come later.” 

 

Tells me that it is natural to have an emotion of prejudice, but what matters most is how we justify this as we grow.

 

5.  Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas  which you disagree with and if so, why? 

 

Despite having a leadership concept in it, the book mainly inclines to pure behavioral and biological science which makes my reading a bit tougher. Some words are very technical and are new to me which I found was confusing. Other than this, I have seen that the concepts in the book are so smart, so enjoyable.

 6.  Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No.

 7.  Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor. 

A. How interesting was it to read?                             9
B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                           9
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       9

 


 

Leadership: An Islamic Perspective
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

Leadership in Islam is a trust. It represents a psychological contract between a leader and his followers that he/she will try his or her best to guide them, to protect them and to treat them justly. According to Islam, every person is the shepherd of a flock and occupies a leadership position. Leadership in Islam is about how Muslims enact their leadership role. This book is directed at both Non - Muslims seeking to understand the leadership paradigm of Muslims and at Muslims wishing to understand leadership better. It clearly describes the perspective through which Islam views leadership and how Muslims have to deal with the Leadership Position. The main objectives behind the book includes; understanding the nature and process of leadership from an Islamic perspective, describing the characteristics of effective leaders in general and of Islamic leaders in particular, teach how one can mobilize, organize and develop his/her followers to Islam and how to delegate effectively and understand the steps that will enable you to become a more effective leader/follower.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

a. Gradualism

 

Gradualism is a process of nurturing followers towards better position in a way that considers their potential and interest. Just as a plot of land needs to be cleared, ploughed and fertilized before being seeded, a member needs to be nurtured before being entrusted with major responsibilities. Leaders has to bring up followers progressively, according to his her capability. Allocating assignments according to each person’s capability and exhibiting patience and understanding is very important. Sometimes, a member may slip. Rather than criticizing him/her, it is so nice to be patient and understanding. In addition, as followers are not all the same, leaders need to adjust their leadership style to deal with varies types of followers in various situations.

 

b. Competence

 

People are more likely to follow a leader’s directive if they believe that this person knows what he or she is doing. If followers undermine the capacity of their leader, they will be less enthusiastic in accepting directions from him. Competency does not only relates to the current technical skills of the leader; his past record of accomplishment as a leader affects others perception of his competence. In Islam, a competent but religiously weak leader may be preferred to an incompetent leader that is more knowledgeable. Of course, a leader who is competent and Islamically strong is to be given priority. The Prophet (pbuh) except in matters where he received a message from God, would often seek and follow the advice of his companion. This enabled his men to take part in discussion and offer suggestions and in this way, the best solution was found by mutual consultation. In matters of religion, the Prophet’s competence cannot be doubted; in other matters of the world where he had not received divine guidance, he sought and accepted advice from others.

 

c. Coaching

 

An effective leader needs to develop the members for whom he is responsible. By helping them to enhance their skills, he can drive two important benefits. First, he can delegate and gain more time to expand his own capabilities. Second, he can create a lasting source of effective followers and future leaders. Coaching is neither career counseling nor performance appraisal. Although it includes both activities, it is a day-to-day, hand on process of helping employees to recognize opportunities that improve their performance and capabilities. Coaching requires a leader to provide more than on the job training. He must be able to assess carefully ways to raise members’ performance and skills, outline mutually acceptable goals, build a supportive climate and influence them to improve their behavior. The coaching process involves Initiation, cultivation, separation and redefinition. It is not a one-day event. Lasting relationships between a leader and his or her members take time to nurture, but members must cut loose at the appropriate time.

 

d. Shura

 

Shura is an Islamic term for consultation on decision making. Depending on their leadership style, leaders may find it easy or difficult to consult other. Islam however stresses the consultation in all affairs. Through the Qur’an and the Prophet (pbuh) habits of seeking and accepting advice, the limits on the exercise of power have been set forth. As Al Buraey points out, Shura plays a critical role in administration and management specifically with respect to decision-making; it provides a restrain on administrative power and authority. Unlike the elitists (majority minority approaches to decision-making, the concept of Shura stresses consensus building. This process of consensus building as applied by Muslim leaders need not to be confined to elite or special interest group alone; instead it should be extended to include all affected by the expected decisions, especially when the subject of consultation does not require specialized technical knowledge or experience.

 

e. Vision

 

Leadership is the ability to see beyond assumed boundaries, and to come up with solutions or paths that few can visualize. Leaders have to get a sense of direction and a long-term vision for their organization or community. Articulated vision brings constancy to the leaders directives and stability to the organization, inspires organizational members and reduces the potential of confusion and conflict among all stakeholders. More importantly, a vision acts as a cognitive frame of reference for orchestrating all of the Organizations activities. Vision can be simple, but it should be something that all can identify with. The vision should constantly inspire all of leaders and his follower’s efforts. Weather at work at rest, weather in failure or success, this vision should be what propels all organizational members forward.

 

f. Inspiration

 

Followers expect their leaders to remain positive about the future no matter how bad the situation may be. The leader must never give up or lose hope. A best example of Inspiration in Islam comes from Abubeker (the first successor of the Prophet). After the death of the Prophet (pbuh), Muslims were in shock, Umar was especially distraught and believed firmly that Muhammad (pbuh) did not die, and was proclaiming this fact loudly. Abubeker calmed him down, saying, softly, ‘O Umar! Keep silent and
He delivered the following address; “O People, if you have been worshipping Muhammad, then know that Muhammad is dead. But if you have been worshipping Allah, then know that Allah is living and never dies.”

This inspiring address soothed the people’s grief, enabled them to remain positive, and focused.

g. Obedience

 

Weather during conditions of peace or war, the leader has to be obeyed. The Prophet (pbuh) said hearing and obeying are the duty of a Muslim regarding what he likes or what he dislikes; Obedience is also required of the whole organization or community. As Muhammad Assad indicates, after a leader has been duly elected, he may ‘be considered to have received a pledge of allegiance from the community.’ As a result, both the majority who voted for him as well as the minority who may have voted against him now owe him obedience and allegiance. Islam considers obedience to the leaders as so important that it views any kind of insubordination to be abhorrent except in very specific circumstances. Obedience is mainly important to bring Unity. Internal fragmentation and lack of unity leads to the formation of divisive goals and organizational or community decline.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

Coming face to face with the religious knowledge that supports the scientific approaches to the definition, qualities, styles and approaches of leadership has an immense benefit for me to see things from the other side of the world. It enable me to see Leadership beyond my limited imagination of thinking it without the scope of religions. I have understood the firm stand Islam has on Ethical Leadership and the qualities that Any Muslim is supposed to have to be a just leader for both Muslims and Non-Muslims.

4. Quotes: are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

“Whosoever delegates a position to someone when he sees that someone else is more competent for the position, then surely he has cheated Allah, his messenger and all the Muslims’ Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).”

“If people do not give their opinions, they are useless and if we, the rulers do not listen to them, we are useless;” said Umar Ibnul Khattab.

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

To be honest, this book helps me a lot to understand about Islamic view of Leadership from the perspective of Holy Qur’an and The Prophetic Hadith. This enables me to correlate the scientific view with the religious approach to the definitions, concepts and qualities expected of a leader.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

Yes, they are very helpful to analyze one’s own Leadership Qualities

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

Even if I believe that more and detailed issues can be written on the Area, the book is so good.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                      10
B. How helpful were its contents?                      10
C. How easy was it to understand?                     10
D. Would you recommend it to others?              10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 10

 


  

Oromo Nationalism and the Ethiopian Discourse
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

This book is an edited book of ten essays and it examines chains of historical, cultural, social, economic, political, legal and intellectual factors that have contributed for the emergence and development of Oromo Nationalism, the essence of this nationalism and the prospects for Oromo National Movement. The editor argues that because of lack of comprehensive study of Oromo nationalism, politicians, policy makers and international bodies who are involved in to the Ethiopian empire do not adequately understand the struggle of the Oromo people and its possible consequences. The book attempts to provide a multidimensional interpretation of the Oromo national movement by bringing together the expertise and skills of several scholars from different branches of social sciences and includes first hand experiences of a few participants in this movement. The Oromo people are the largest ethno national group in Ethiopia and their resources have been the foundation on which the country has evolved and survived. The review below also focuses mainly on the situation during the Emperor Hailesillasie regime. Only few ideas are mentioned about the Derg Regime and Current Situation.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

a. Gada Democracy

 

Gada democracy is a classic example of a traditional African form of democracy having three Organs of government. Legislative, executive and judiciary functions were independent of one another but were integral components of a nationwide system of governance. The Gada was a generation-grade system based on sequence of eight calendar year periods. At any one time, there existed five Gada parties or generational groups. Once in the system, it took individuals forty years to complete the cycle. Every eight years, party members moved from one Gada level to the next until they completed service. At each stage, Gada members were educated in Oromo history, military strategy, law and governance. Every eight years a nine-member presidium of the Gada party entering the fifth level was elected based on adult male suffrage. After serving as leaders, individuals were retired but continued to act as advisers to ascendant leaders. This system of governance was thought to date as far back as five hundred years, but by the mid 19th century, it had begun to break down. Some suggest that the system had simply become outmoded, but there are several more plausible explanations for the decline of importance of the Gada system, this includes the replacement of traditional religions with Islam and Christianity in addition to the effect of colonization of the Emperors.
b. Assimilation Policy

 

The previous Imperial regimes in Ethiopia devoted most of their energies towards discouraging or destroying the culture, language and religions of the non-Amhara ethnic groups, particularly those in the south and east of the empire. Amhara is the second largest ethnic group in Ethiopia. Even when one considers the integration of certain members of non-Amhara groups in to the upper echelons of the ruling class and the imperial bureaucracy, what stands out is the small number of such groups represented. Emperor Hailesillasie, the leader of Ethiopia who named himself as King of Kings appointed by God to rule Ethiopia, himself encouraged marriage of the Amhara’s, particularly the nobility in to important Oromo families, but in practice had a negligible integrative effect. Even though the Oromo’s are the largest single ethno national group in the empire, few of that groups ever occupied very high positions in the imperial bureaucracy of the army. In the 1960s there appeared to be a systematic effort to coopt non-Amhara ethnic groups in to the imperial ruling class. However, these strategy has failed as the core of the strategy was remained the gradual Amharization of these groups without integrating them as equals or allowing them to share power in any meaningful way. Amhara culture implicitly presented as the defining trait of the Ethiopian Nationality. In other words, Ethiopian identity was at a fundamental level based in the Amhara language and the Ethiopian Orthodox religion.

c. Education

 

Education is one of the most critical gift that needs to be given to all regardless of a difference in ethnic group or not. However, despite being the largest ethnicity, Oromos were denied access to education. During the Imperial regime, the number of Oromo elites were so few and even those who were educated were not given a position in high government positions. It was an amazing incident when one of the top military men who was believed to be an Amhara, later found to be an Oromo due to the evil speech of the then Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Aklilu Habtewod. Here is the story; General Tadesse Biru was a veteran of the anti-fascist resistance and an officer with a long service in the imperial army and police. He was self-educated man, whose love for knowledge and concern for the poor and the oppressed was well known. He had an extremely pleasant personality and was liked by the rank and the file in the army. Because of his sympathy for the poor, the Amhara officials feared him, but since they thought that, he was an Amhara National who could not be dangerous to their oppressive system they do not worry a lot about it. The general was a deeply religious man, an ardent Ethiopian Nationalist and a loyal supporter of Emperor Hailesillasie. This man is the one who has trained the world class Freedom Fighter, Nelson Mandela. In the words of Mandela, ‘ I was lectured on military science by Colonel Tadese, who was also Assistant commissioner of police… in my study sessions, Colonel Tadesse discussed matters as how to create a guerrilla force, how to command an army and how to enforce the discipline.’ General Tadesse Biru enthusiasm for the spread of literacy among all including the Oromo alarmed the Ethiopian Prime Minister of the time, Aklilu Habte Wold, the man who assumed Tadesse was an Amhara confined to him the educational policy of Hailesillasie in these words. Tadesse, after you have started leading the literacy campaign, you talk a lot about learning. It is good to say learn. However, you must know whom we have to teach. We are leading a country by leaving behind the Oromo at least by a century. If you think you can educate them, they are an ocean whose wave can engulf you. General Tadesse could not believe what he heard from the Prime Minister. He was shocked and alerted by the blatant discrimination directed against the Oromo. It became fully evident to him that the central focus of Ethiopian officials was to perpetuate ignorance, economic exploitation and political oppression of the Oromo. To his credit, General Tadesse was a man who believed in the equality and equal treatment of all Ethiopians.

 

d. Eteya

 

Eteya is a place located a few kilometers away from the Capital city of Ethiopia. Only 90 kms away from my birth place. It was a place where, for the first time in Oromo history where a big meeting is held on the journey towards development of Oromo Nationalism. Oromos from different regions of Oromia realized that they were all subjected to harsh economic exploitation and political oppression. It was estimated that as many as 100,000 Oromos have participated in the meeting. It was the beginning of the realization about the importance of unity and those who were at the meeting vowed never to be divided again. They even went beyond religious demarcations, Muslims ate meat slaughtered by Christians, and Christians did likewise. This was an unheard of event in Ethiopia and outraged the Amhara elites. The meeting was addressed in Afaan Oromo, the language prescribed in Public.

e. Ethiopia that Includes Oromia

 

General Tadesse and his fellow freedom fighters did not support the idea of creating an Oromia State. They fully accepted the framework of Territorial integrity of Ethiopia. What they were opposed to was the identity of Ethiopia that excluded the Oromo. What they hated was the political and cultural hegemony of one ethnic group in Ethiopia. In the end, what they wanted was the democratic Ethiopia that would be beneficial to all the peoples of Ethiopia. However, long after many decades since these Oromo freedom strugglers said this, still this issue is very critical.

f. Oromo Language

 

During the past regimes, the Ethiopian ruling elites did everything possible to prevent the development of Oromo nationalism by liquidating Oromo leadership, by destroying Oromo religious and cultural institutions, by dividing Oromo and most of all by undermining the growth of Oromo Language and the flourishing of written literature in many ways. In the words of Paul Baxter, “Oromo was denied any official status and it was not permissible to publish, preach, teach or broadcast in Oromo. In court or before an official, an Oromo had to speak Amharic or use an Interpreter, Even a case between Oromos before an Oromo speaking magistrate had to be heard in Amharic. He added, I sat through a mission service at which the preacher and all the congregation were Oromo but at which the sermons as well as the service was given first in Amharic, which few of the congregation understood at all, and then translated in to Oromo.”

g. Religion

The Oromo people, under Gada system practiced their own religion by worshiping Waaqa which means God. Waaqaa of Oromo is one and almighty, same for all. The religious affairs of the Oromo are undertaken by the Qaalluu / Qaallittii Male, Female religious leaders such as Imams and Bishops. They play both a spiritual and political role in the Gada system where different national ceremonies are organized and overseen by the Qaalluu/ Qaallittii Institution. However, nowadays this religion is only practical among a few portion of the Oromo people.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how?

Even if I am Oromo myself, in addition to a little of what I know before, I have learnt a lot about the past miseries that my fore fathers have tested for their Nationalism and the building of Ethiopia. I have realized that, the current success obtained like speaking and learning in our own language is the great effort made by them. I can say, the book have helped me in understanding the Oromo view about Ethiopia and this has a tremendous importance for me to relearn about me and other ethnic groups in my country so as to contribute my part for a better tomorrow.

4. Quotes: Are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

“To be ourselves and to assert our own definition of the situation, we need to acquire the capacity to reject the dominant definition.

“Ignorance has many forms and all of them are dangerous.”

“We have to count up on ourselves. The hour has not come, but it will come; perhaps our children will see the departure of the Oppressor.” Roba Butta, one of the Leaders who led Arsi Oromo Resistance against King Menilik 1881 – 1886

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?
As a young man who was born at the end of 1980s, I never came across such a detailed expression of the different paradigms about Oromo People and their Past Miseries. Even if I am from the same ethnicity and have been to history classes, those already became the lessons during immature ages. Hence, I can say that this book have helped me a lot in understanding the Oromo Nationalism until 1991. However, as the book is published long ago, recent developments are not included. I wish the book were up to date to fit the current situation.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

As I have stated, the book mainly covers mainly the Oromo national struggle prior to 1991 and highlights some points about the situation during the Transitional period. Hence, despite speculations and unscientific predictions, it is important to know the challenges and progresses regarding the Oromo Nationalism and the Ethiopian discourse, this will help young mentalities; like me, to learn from the success and mistakes of the past and move forward optimistically.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read? 10
B. How helpful were its contents? 10
C. How easy was it to understand? 10
D. Would you recommend it to others? 10
E. What is the overall rating you would give it? 10

 


 

Recep Teyyip Erdoğan: The Brave Heart, the Father of New Turkey
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

The objective of the book is to describe such a kindhearted world leader who he sees as a member of his family, indeed. The writer believes that no book is adequate sufficient to explain such a prosperous services that Erdoğan carried out. He believes that, this book is just one in a one thousand or just the seen side of the iceberg. The book illustrates how by means of his political competence, his great management of human resource, the value he gives to group work, his consideration of the importance of each individuals assisted him greatly and enable him to manage to find solutions to all the deep-rooted problems of the Turkey.

Recep Teyyip Erdoğan was born in Kasimpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey on February 26, 1954. His family moved from rise to Istanbul before he was born. They were one of the thousands of families moving from their village to Istanbul because of poverty. His family was a modest Muslim family. He graduated from Kasimpaşa Piyale elementary school in 1965, and then from Istanbul religious vocational high school in 1973. He also graduated from Eyüp High school where he took a graduation exam. His father was a member of Turkish coast guard. When Erdoğan was a young boy, he sold Turkish begels and lemonade on the streets of Istanbul suburbs to earn extra money. In religious vocational high school, Erdoğan became a proficient orator in Islamic speeches. Erdoğan took part in the sports as an amateur footballer over the years 1969 – 1982. Then, he played in a professional football team; He graduated from the faculty of Economics and Commercial sciences, Marmara University in 1981. Erdoğan integrated his social life with politics by taking the first step in joining active politics. Being a great idealist, Recep Teyyip Erdoğan concerned for national issues and social problems.

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

i. Democratization

 

With the commitment from Teyyip Erdoğan, Turkey is able to provide extensive services, made large-scale investment and undertake radical reforms. Undoubtedly democratic reforms are of unique importance among the services that he provides to the country in the last ten years of his power. The steps he take to make Turkey a democratic, free, prosperous, peaceful and safe country have transformed its image, These steps have had a direct impact on economy, foreign policy and social life and supported the strong growth that Turkey has achieved in all fields. His deep rooted and longtime tradition is based on a beautiful saying by Sheikh Edebali, “Let a man flourish, so that the state shall flourish.” A revolutionary change in the mindset through social peace initiative that they call “National Unity and Fraternity Process.” This revolution has introduced an understanding that recognizes differences as diversity and puts the emphasis on serving citizens instead of a statist approach, which sees its own citizens as a threat. Its ensured that various languages and dialects can be taught at all levels and can be used in political propaganda and broadcasts. A regulation on the protection and promotion of human rights based on the current criteria of the present day world, A Zero tolerance to torture policy have followed. Institutions of Ombudsman and Human Rights Institution in Turkey has established.

ii. State for the Public

 

A state that does not value its people, excludes and marginalizes them, discriminates among its citizens and protects its self against its citizens, cannot guarantee rights and cannot ensure economic growth and welfare. He believed that the state should not be an entity, which positions itself against its citizens, but as an entity, that position itself has to coexist with its people and to eliminate the problem of the state a servant for its people. With this belief, Erdoğan has made great efforts to make the state, servants of its people and to eliminate the problem of trust existing between state and nation, in other words ensuring that state embraces the whole nation. In this process, he have implemented ‘local government reform’ with the understanding of democracy and development starts at the local level.

iii. Cooperation

 

Erdoğan believes that his government will continue to undertake reforms with great determination in order to ensure that Turkey achieves the objectives that it sets for itself for the year 2023 and attains a more efficient and prestigious position in its region and the world as well as to achieve the ideal of Great Turkey. He believes that Turkey will become a more significant actor as long as it achieves the required transformation and change as well as the reforms and it will continue to be a rising star in the world with its strong economy, advanced democracy and active foreign policy. He believes that this can happen through cooperation and mutual interaction with other states. There is no country in the world where Turkey is not exporting.

iv. Vision

 

With Erdoğan’s Leadership, Turkey is a country with a very clear vision by the year 2923. The country is proceeding very fast to its 2013 goal of Great Turkey. A new super power is about to be borne by this year, though those and their extension wishing to block Turkey’s advancement do whatever cruelness they can and use all the opportunities for deviltry in order to attack Erdoğan and his party. According to the writer, those devils are now desperate, hopeless and helpless because they have told every lie in every format and they do not have even a word to say. Besides, they do not have even a mass of people to make them believe their lies.

v. Respect for Flag

 

The family photo of the Leaders has taken in the G20 summit in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia. The honorable Prime Minister Erdoğan took the Turkish flag, which was on the floor and put it in to his pocket. The leaders of the member countries watched him with admiration and they did the same by putting their own flags in to their pocket.

vi. Paying the price

 

Like any other leaders who made history in the world, Erdoğan has also faced the suffering of Injustice. In 27 March 1994, Erdoğan elected as the Istanbul Mayor in the local elections. By means of his political competence, his great management of human resource, the value he gives to group work, his consideration of the importance of each individuals assisted him greatly and he managed to find solutions to all the deep-rooted problems of the metropolitan city. He provided Istanbul with kilometers of water pipelines and defeated the total water shortage of Istanbul. Having founded giant recycling equipment’s, he has solved all the rubbish problem of the city. The root of his power has solely be based on public trust. His favorite poem, by Ziya Gökalp: “The Mosques are our barracks, the domes our helmets, the minarets our bayonets and the faithful our soldiers.” In Siirt , Erdoğan recited this poem on 12th of December 1997 in a public speech and as a result of this he was sentenced to a prison term, It was indeed a poem being quoted from a book published by a state enterprise which had been advised for teachers to read by Ministry of Turkish National Education. This poem leads him to be fired from the office of Istanbul Mayor.

vii. Smokeless Turkey

 

Despıte the fact that millions around the world are smoking cigarette every day, its effect on health is well known. Erdoğan’s government has achieved a great success of struggling against smoking cigarette, which causes chronical ailments such as cancer. He has established clinics at hospitals all over turkey aiming to make people give up smoking. His government is also giving all anti-smoking medicines to its citizens freely.

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

I have come through many books about Leaders, and I have realized that all Leaders have a different approach to bring peace, prosperity and development; however, what makes them all common is that they are all visionary, committed, and energetic, pays a price and finally realizes their dream. The same is true for Erdoğan. I learned from him that, a country once big and prosperous, later faced with many difficulties could restore its past greatness. His lessons have helps me to understand that, I can have the capacity to influence the future of my country too.

4. Quotes; - are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

“In today’s world, deriving enmity from history and creating new antagonisms are neither acceptable nor useful for building a common future. The spirit of the age necessitates dialogue despite differences, understanding by heeding others, evaluating means of compromise, denouncing hatred and praising respect and tolerance.”

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

As someone who is reading about Erdoğan for the first time, I can say the book helps me to understand a little bit of his journey towards bringing peace, development and prosperity to his country. However, the book does not show a detail of how things have happened to him and solely based on few sources and it is not comprehensive, I wish that the same author or someone else will improve and republish this book.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

What I can say again is that, the book is too short to be comprehensive of covering the details of someone who is elevated from grassroots level to Presidency. I can say, this is only a beginning and much more can be written.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                        8
B. How helpful were its contents?                        8
C. How easy was it to understand?                       9
D. Would you recommend it to others?                8
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?  8

 


 

 

The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book is a narrative of Martin Luther King’s Life. It is his thoughts about the events in his life as he expressed them at different times in various ways; three major books as well as numerous articles and essays focusing on specific periods of his life. In addition, many of his speeches, sermons letters and unpublished manuscripts provide revealing information. Taken together, these materials provide approximation of the autobiography that king might have written had his life not suddenly ended. The book is largely a religious and political autobiography rather than exploitation of a private life. It is necessarily limited to those aspects of King’s life that he chose to reveal in his papers. However, King has never garrulous about his private life and was unlikely to have chosen his autobiography as an opportunity to reveal intimate details of his life. To ensure that this narrative accurately reflects King’s autobiographical thoughts, editorial interventions have been limited to those necessary to produce a narrative that is readable, internally coherent and lucid.
 
2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why?  List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you.  Use personal examples from your own life.
 
i. Leadership is Born

 

Martin was born in the late twenties on the verge of great depression, which was to spread its disastrous arms in to every corner of this nation for over a decade. He was born at Atlanta, Georgia, the capital of the state and the so called ‘’ gateway to the south’’. He was born on Auburn Avenue. The community in which he was born was quite ordinary in terms of social status. No one in his community had attained any great wealth. From the beginning, he was an extraordinarily healthy child. It’s said that at his birth the doctors pronounced him a one hundred percent perfect child from a physical point of view. He hardly know how an ill moment feels. I guess the same thing would apply to my mental life. It seems from a hereditary point of view, nature was very kind to Martin and this might reflect a concept of leadership in birth.
 
ii. Faith

 

Martin was clear about his stand on religion. In his own words, he stated the following “of course, I was religious. I grew up in the church. My father is a preacher, my grandfather was a preacher, my great grandfather was a preacher, my only brother is a preacher, and my daddy’s brother is a preacher. So I didn’t have much choice.” He believed that with this faith they will be able to transform the jangling discords of their nation in to a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. Added to that he said, ‘with this faith we will be able to work together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.’ Martin has never forget to pray in all circumstances. One of his prayers to God was, “Oh God help me to see myself in my true perspective. Help me, Oh God, to see that I am just a symbol of a movement, Help me to see that I am the victim of what the Germans call a Zeitgeist and that something was getting ready to happen in History.”
                                                                                                            
c. Dream

 

Martin stated, “in my mind and in my heart and in my soul, there was a dream and a hope that out of this unbelievable horror would come lasting well. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.” I say to you today friends; so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed – we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.
 
He Added, “I have a dream that one day on the hills of Georgia the souls of former slaves and the sons of former slaves will be able to sit together at the table of goodwill. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice will be transformed in to an oasis of freedom. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be Judged by the color of their but by the content of their character.”
 
“I have a dream that one day, in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification one day right there in Alabama little black boys and girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

 

iv. The Triangle
 
The length of life, as we shall use it, it is not a duration, not its longevity. It is the rather the push of a life forward to its personal ends and ambitions. It is the inward concern for one’s personal welfare. The breadth of life is the outward concern for the welfare of others. The height of life is the upward reach towards God. These are the three dimensions of life and without the due development of all, no life becomes complete. Life at its best is a great triangle. At one-angle stands the individual person, at the other angle stands other persons, and at the tiptop stands God, unless these three are concatenated, working harmoniously together in a single life, that life is Incomplete.  

 

v. The Three Problems

 

In his detailed writings about the overall struggle, King mentioned about the three basic things that needs to be resolved to ensure peace and justice on this earth. He mentioned them as racial injustice, poverty and war. He stated that when man solves these three great problems, he would have squared his moral progress with his scientific progress. In addition, more importantly, he will have learned the practical art of learning in harmony.
 
vi. The Commitment

 

King was very clear and committed about his journey. He knew very well that their revolution was genuine because it was born from the same womb that always gives birth to massive social upheavals – the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations. The Negro was determined to liberate himself. His cry for justice had hardened in to a palpable, irresistible force. They have passed through difficulties, paid many prices and exerted maximum commitment to ensure that America will be a place where all human beings treated equally.
 
vii. Non-Violence

 

King advocated not seeking to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate in to physical force with soul force. To believe in violence does not mean that violence will not be inflicted up on you. The believer in nonviolence is the person who will willingly allow himself to be the victim of violence but will ever inflict violence up on another. He lives by the conviction that through his suffering and cross bearing, the social situation may be redeemed.
 
3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?
 
I have realized that all Leaders have a different approach to bring peace, prosperity and development; however, what makes them all common is that they are all visionary, committed, and energetic, pays a price and finally realizes their dream. The same is true for Martin Luther King . I learned from him that one who has a clear knowledge about where he is going, one who aspires to see the equality other than superiority to others will always succeed.
 
4. Quotes; - are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?
 
“Non-cooperation with evil is as much a moral obligation as is cooperation with good.”
 
“No Lie can live forever. Truth, crushed to the earth, will rise again.”
 
If we are to go forward, we must go back and rediscover these precious values – that all reality hinges on moral foundations and that all reality has spiritual growth.
 
“He who lives by the sword will perish by the sword.”
 
“In every battle for freedom there are martyrs whose lives are forfeited and whose sacrifice endorses the promise of liberty.”
 
“Man’s inhumanity to man is not only perpetuated by the vitriolic actions of those who are bad. It is also perpetuated by the vitiating inaction of those who are good.”
 
“Death Comes to every individual. There is an amazing democracy about death. It is not an aristocracy for some of the people, but a democracy for all of the people. Kings die and beggars die; rich men die and poor men die; old people die and young people die; old people die and young beggars die. Death comes to the innocent and it comes to the guilty. Death is the irreducible common denominator of all human being.”
 
“Death is not a period that ends the great sentence of life, but a comma that punctuates it to more lofty significance. Death is not a blind alley that leads the human race in to a state of nothingness, but an open door, which leads a man in to life eternal.”
 
5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?
 
Nothing.
 
6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

No.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                            10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

 


 

The Heart of Leadership
Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

In this book, the writer provides practical and powerful insights, tools and methodologies for anyone wishing to develop improve and enhance his/her leadership abilities. It integrates and fleshes out the best thinking on leadership, providing a coherent, highly practical model for generating success. It also provides clear practices that serve to build the critical interpersonal relationships necessary for long-term success, while also focusing on the actions required to achieve outstanding results. As the book indicates, if we are to thrive as a culture and successfully compete, we need to develop more powerful and effective leadership, the best place to start is with ourselves by looking in the mirror and seeing the powerful potential leaders within us. The book insists readers to have courage to challenge the old assumptions and to ask tough questions about our ways of interacting, thinking and living. It shows means and strategies on how to have the courage to challenge much of what we have learned and to open ourselves to learning new things in a never-ending process of discovery, engagement, practice, measurement and then rediscovery.

 2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why?  List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you.  Use personal examples from your own life.

i. Courage

Courage is not the absence of fear, it is the willingness to proceed and do what is necessary and important, even when it is frightening and seems dangerous to do so. Those who are fearless are not courageous. They act but do not feel challenged by their actions.  The absence of fear is either because someone is a fool or unaware of the dangers and pitfalls. True courage is found in those who see the hazards, experience anxiety or even terror, but proceed it because it is the right thing to do. Leadership has at its center the requirement of courage; you cannot be a leader unless you find a way of developing and generating courage in yourself and then encouraging others. The real leaders’ heart somehow speaks to the hearts of those around her or him, inspiring and touching them. As Jefferson said, one person with courage is a majority. Without the courage to stick to the essential purpose, values and principles, a leader cannot persevere and move himself, herself, or others toward the realization of the vision. Somehow, leaders need to find the courage and invite the courage of others in staying true to the guiding purpose.

ii. Not Feedback, Information

It has repeatedly said that there are two forms of feedback; one is positive and the other is negative. Positive feedback is the one characterized as the kind of data that is ego-syntonic; it makes us feel good and stroke our ego. Negative feedbacks is the one seen as the kind of data that is ego dystonic – hurting our feelings and puncturing our ego. Most believe that people really want to hear the positive data. But really don’t like and prefer to avoid – the negative data. According to the author, there are usually an audible grasp or shocked silence when it comes to feedback. In reality, there is no such things as positive and negative feedback available. What we call positive is really the stuff we like to hear, while so called negative feedback is the stuff we don’t want to hear, making us feel or uncomfortable.

As the author, there is in reality, only one kind of feedback and it is information. What we really do is simply label information as positive or negative based on our personal preferences of what makes us feel good and what makes us feel bad. The leader who is courageous enough to solicit feedback will quickly discover something of even greater value, the great secret at the heart of all human feedback. The secret lies in the fact that even though feedback concerning yourself may not be always be accurate; you will always learn something about the person giving the feedback. The person giving you feedback about you may or may not be on target with regard to you, but they are always telling you about their perceptions, the way they have got it put together, their needs, values, feelings. Assumptions and beliefs.   

iii. Followership

Leadership does not exist without followers. To be a leader means generating followership. The degree of leadership effectiveness is dependent up on three things working together; the enthusiasm and dedication of followers, good plans and intelligent strategy and quality of the people you draw together.  Faith in the leader and his or her vision is very essential to create followership. People tend to follow those they respect, those they believe will enable them to achieve their own personal goals, those they trust, and those who will meet their needs. People also follow someone who touches their dreams, aspirations and hopes appealing to their longing or inner genius. Anyone who aspires to leadership will engender followership if they pay attention to the heart of leadership; competence, passion, integrity and intimacy. By working on the tone of the heart, they create a level of trust as palpable as a force field. In addition, trust, as covey so eloquently puts it, is like water to a plant. Without water, a plant withers and dies. Without trust, followership withers and disappears.

iv. Passion

Passion refers to the drive to contribute to create something meaningful and worthy. It is a kin to fire that ignites the hearts and minds of those with whom it comes on contact. It is a sense of mission and inspiration that drives someone to stretch beyond himself or herself and draws others similarly to go beyond their expected limitations. Emerson said it well. ‘Nothing great was ever achieved without Enthusiasm’. Passion is a spark that shines out the work habits and ways of relating found in exceptional leaders; a force can burn its way through the fog of mediocrity, confusion and cynicism.

v. Liberating Motivation
The true challenge of motivation is not adding things to get people motivated. It is instead an issue of removing obstacles, the barriers to the free expression of the motivation already present but blunted or repressed. It is to liberate motivation and removing obstacles. Liberating motivation of others is discovering what makes them thirsty, or even where they already thirst for greater meaning or contribution, recognition or award. Then the task is to demonstrate that following, working with and pursuing your agenda, path, idea or direction is what will help them quench that thirst.

vi. Reading Others

A leader knows how to read people – is always seeking to understand others about their desires, dreams, strengths, and internal motivators, and is always seeking a more effective way of reaching out to them. The practice of actively reading and decoding what is going on in the hearts and minds of others is the driving force behind maintaining and enhancing relationships, thereby increasing leadership effectiveness. The practice of working to understand others has the primary function of increasing precision with which we engage others. Reading others needs empathy; the ability to feel what another is feeling and to place ourselves in their shoes. This comes from the heart and it is cultivated by paying attention to our own heart through the development of self-awareness.

vii. Empathetic Listening

Requires the desire to hear behind the words, tones and the context. It means listening with the ear within the heart. It is listening for the heart of other by opening up and noticing attention to tone and context even more than the context of what is being said to get what is going on within the other. It is intuition, patience and compassion at its best.

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how?

Apart from the leadership concepts I know before, this book brings new ideas and thinking and lets me question my understanding of leadership. I can say, this book is one of the smart leadership books I read before. Other than the concepts, the techniques and methodologies indicated in the book are awesome.

4. Quotes: Are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

“One person with a courage is a majority.”

“Effective leaders remember and act up on the fact that all work is done ultimately by  people, with people, through people and for people.”

“He Drew a circle to shut me out.  Heretic, rebel, a thing to float; But love and I had the wit to win. We drew a circle, which drew him in.”

“Leadership is about helping others to discover what they really care about and what may be hidden even from themselves.”

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

Nothing.

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

Yes, they are surely helpful. They enabled me to rewrite my personal vision and mission statement.

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

No.

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?      10

The Heart of Leadership

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

In this book, the writer provides practical and powerful insights, tools and methodologies for anyone wishing to develop improve and enhance his/her leadership abilities. It integrates and fleshes out the best thinking on leadership, providing a coherent, highly practical model for generating success. It also provides clear practices that serve to build the critical interpersonal relationships necessary for long-term success, while also focusing on the actions required to achieve outstanding results. As the book indicates, if we are to thrive as a culture and successfully compete, we need to develop more powerful and effective leadership, the best place to start is with ourselves by looking in the mirror and seeing the powerful potential leaders within us. The book insists readers to have courage to challenge the old assumptions and to ask tough questions about our ways of interacting, thinking and living. It shows means and strategies on how to have the courage to challenge much of what we have learned and to open ourselves to learning new things in a never-ending process of discovery, engagement, practice, measurement and then rediscovery.

 

 2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why?  List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you.  Use personal examples from your own life. 

 

i. Courage

 

Courage is not the absence of fear, it is the willingness to proceed and do what is necessary and important, even when it is frightening and seems dangerous to do so. Those who are fearless are not courageous. They act but do not feel challenged by their actions.  The absence of fear is either because someone is a fool or unaware of the dangers and pitfalls. True courage is found in those who see the hazards, experience anxiety or even terror, but proceed it because it is the right thing to do. Leadership has at its center the requirement of courage; you cannot be a leader unless you find a way of developing and generating courage in yourself and then encouraging others. The real leaders’ heart somehow speaks to the hearts of those around her or him, inspiring and touching them. As Jefferson said, one person with courage is a majority. Without the courage to stick to the essential purpose, values and principles, a leader cannot persevere and move himself, herself, or others toward the realization of the vision. Somehow, leaders need to find the courage and invite the courage of others in staying true to the guiding purpose.

 

ii. Not Feedback, Information

 

It has repeatedly said that there are two forms of feedback; one is positive and the other is negative. Positive feedback is the one characterized as the kind of data that is ego-syntonic; it makes us feel good and stroke our ego. Negative feedbacks is the one seen as the kind of data that is ego dystonic – hurting our feelings and puncturing our ego. Most believe that people really want to hear the positive data. But really don’t like and prefer to avoid – the negative data. According to the author, there are usually an audible grasp or shocked silence when it comes to feedback. In reality, there is no such things as positive and negative feedback available. What we call positive is really the stuff we like to hear, while so called negative feedback is the stuff we don’t want to hear, making us feel or uncomfortable.

 

As the author, there is in reality, only one kind of feedback and it is information. What we really do is simply label information as positive or negative based on our personal preferences of what makes us feel good and what makes us feel bad. The leader who is courageous enough to solicit feedback will quickly discover something of even greater value, the great secret at the heart of all human feedback. The secret lies in the fact that even though feedback concerning yourself may not be always be accurate; you will always learn something about the person giving the feedback. The person giving you feedback about you may or may not be on target with regard to you, but they are always telling you about their perceptions, the way they have got it put together, their needs, values, feelings. Assumptions and beliefs.       

 

iii. Followership

 

Leadership does not exist without followers. To be a leader means generating followership. The degree of leadership effectiveness is dependent up on three things working together; the enthusiasm and dedication of followers, good plans and intelligent strategy and quality of the people you draw together.  Faith in the leader and his or her vision is very essential to create followership. People tend to follow those they respect, those they believe will enable them to achieve their own personal goals, those they trust, and those who will meet their needs. People also follow someone who touches their dreams, aspirations and hopes appealing to their longing or inner genius. Anyone who aspires to leadership will engender followership if they pay attention to the heart of leadership; competence, passion, integrity and intimacy. By working on the tone of the heart, they create a level of trust as palpable as a force field. In addition, trust, as covey so eloquently puts it, is like water to a plant. Without water, a plant withers and dies. Without trust, followership withers and disappears.

 

iv. Passion

 

Passion refers to the drive to contribute to create something meaningful and worthy. It is a kin to fire that ignites the hearts and minds of those with whom it comes on contact. It is a sense of mission and inspiration that drives someone to stretch beyond himself or herself and draws others similarly to go beyond their expected limitations. Emerson said it well. ‘Nothing great was ever achieved without Enthusiasm’. Passion is a spark that shines out the work habits and ways of relating found in exceptional leaders; a force can burn its way through the fog of mediocrity, confusion and cynicism.

 

v. Liberating Motivation

The true challenge of motivation is not adding things to get people motivated. It is instead an issue of removing obstacles, the barriers to the free expression of the motivation already present but blunted or repressed. It is to liberate motivation and removing obstacles. Liberating motivation of others is discovering what makes them thirsty, or even where they already thirst for greater meaning or contribution, recognition or award. Then the task is to demonstrate that following, working with and pursuing your agenda, path, idea or direction is what will help them quench that thirst.

 

vi. Reading Others

 

A leader knows how to read people – is always seeking to understand others about their desires, dreams, strengths, and internal motivators, and is always seeking a more effective way of reaching out to them. The practice of actively reading and decoding what is going on in the hearts and minds of others is the driving force behind maintaining and enhancing relationships, thereby increasing leadership effectiveness. The practice of working to understand others has the primary function of increasing precision with which we engage others. Reading others needs empathy; the ability to feel what another is feeling and to place ourselves in their shoes. This comes from the heart and it is cultivated by paying attention to our own heart through the development of self-awareness.

 

vii. Empathetic Listening

 

Requires the desire to hear behind the words, tones and the context. It means listening with the ear within the heart. It is listening for the heart of other by opening up and noticing attention to tone and context even more than the context of what is being said to get what is going on within the other. It is intuition, patience and compassion at its best.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how? 

 

Apart from the leadership concepts I know before, this book brings new ideas and thinking and lets me question my understanding of leadership. I can say, this book is one of the smart leadership books I read before. Other than the concepts, the techniques and methodologies indicated in the book are awesome.

 

4. Quotes: Are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

“One person with a courage is a majority.”

 

“Effective leaders remember and act up on the fact that all work is done ultimately by  people, with people, through people and for people.”

 

“He Drew a circle to shut me out.  Heretic, rebel, a thing to float; But love and I had the wit to win. We drew a circle, which drew him in.”

 

“Leadership is about helping others to discover what they really care about and what may be hidden even from themselves.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Nothing.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful? 

 

Yes, they are surely helpful. They enabled me to rewrite my personal vision and mission statement.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment. 

 

No.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor. 

 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10

B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10

D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?      10

 


 

 

The Autobiography of Ghandi: The Story of My Experiments with Truth

 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

                  

 

In this book, Gandhi mentions his numerous experiment with truth and as his life consists of nothing but those experiments. It is true that the story will take the shape of an autobiography. He said that, I should not mind, if every page of if it speaks only of my experiments. I believe, or at any rate of flatter, myself with the belief that a connected account of all these experiments will not be without benefits to the reader. My experiments in the political field are now known, not only in India, but also to a certain extent to the civilized world. For me, they have not much value and the title of Mahatma that they won for me has therefore even less. However, I should certainly narrate my experiments in the spiritual field which are known only to myself and from which I have derived such powers as I poses for working in the political field.

 

Gandhi is born at Porbandar on October 2, 1869 from a father who was a lover of his clan, truthful brave and generous but short-tempered. His father has no education but his rich experience of practical affairs stood him in good stead in the solution of the most intricate questions and in managing hundreds of men. His mother was very religious. The outstanding impression she has left on his memory is that of saintliness. She would not think of taking her meals without her daily prayers. His mother had a strong common sense. She was well informed about all matters of state, and women of the court thought highly of her intelligence.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples from your own life.

 

i. Simplicity

 

Gandhi believed in the equality of all forms of labor. He developed and participated in the labor union movement and never asked any of his followers to do work he would not do himself. He believed that all religions were manifestations of truth and that people of different faiths should and could live in peace and harmony. He devoted a great part of his life to eliminating violence and promoting mutual respect and tolerance between Hindus and Muslims. He wanted to maintain an undivided India in which Hindus and Muslims could live in peace.

 

 

ii. Single Standard of Conduct

 

Standard of leadership depends on not only the qualities and beliefs of our leaders but also on the expectations, we have of them. We have been led to believe that there is one standard for private morality and conduct and another for public morality and conduct. We have come to accept that a lower moral standard is necessary to get things done in the real world of politics and business. This is the gospel of expediency – the double standard of conduct. It is fueled by the idea of winning at all costs: those results are the only things that count. It is hardly possible to find an individual who is committed to a single standard of conduct in private and public life. To increase and respect for leadership and for the system in which we live, we must acknowledge a single standard of conduct in both public and private life.

 

 

iii. Truth

 

Gandhi, when defining Truth states that, “There should be truth in thought, Truth in speech and Truth in action.” When truth controls action, we move toward complete congruence between words and deeds. To Gandhi, God was truth. In this sense he gave a religious meaning to the expression, “you shall know the truth and truth shall make you free.” He states that let hundreds like me perish but the truth prevails. Let us not reduce the standard of truth even by a hairs breadth for judging erring mortals like myself. He indicates that a public worker should not make statements of which he has not made sure. Above all, a votary of truth must exercise the greatest caution. To allow a man to believe a thing which one has not fully verified is to compromise truth. A man who is swayed by passions may have good intentions, may be truthful in word but he will never find the truth. A successful search for Truth means complete deliverance from the dual throng such as love and hate. Happiness and misery. A devotee of Truth may not do anything in difference to convention. He must always hold himself open to correction; whenever he discovers himself to be wrong, he must confess it at all costs and atone for it.

 

 

iv. Courage

 

Gandhi believes that when you exercise moral courage and do what you know is right, you may face adversity. Adversity comes in many forms: loss of friends, money, position, popularity, success. In some cases, doing what is right or not submitting to what you know is wrong can result in physical pain. Here, moral and physical courage come. So, each of us must have courage and take some individual responsibility for removing injustice if we want to improve the standard of leadership. Like any struggle for freedom, Gandhi has faced a prison life. His first experience of jail life was in 1908.

 

v. Nonviolence

 

Nonviolence, for Gandhi is as equally as broad as that of Truth. For him, Non-violence is not the rejection of violence; it was the positive love for all humanity. Violence encompasses all forms of exploitation, including discrimination and poverty. Hence, nonviolence demands action, requiring work against all forms of exploitation. Protecting the environment, assisting the less fortunate, and putting an end to all forms of discrimination fit within the concept of nonviolence.

 

vi. Spirit of Service

 

 

A patriot cannot afford to ignore any branch of service to the motherland. Gandhi indicated that service of the poor has been his heart’s desire and it has always thrown him amongst the poor and enabled him to identify himself with them. Speaking in his own words, he states that if I found myself entirely absorbed in the service of the community, the reason behind was my desire for self-realization; I had made the religion of service my own, as I feel that God can be realized only through service. Gandhi believes that service has meaning if it gives pleasure to fellow human beings. When service is done for show or fear of public opinion, it stunts the man and crushes his spirit. Service, which is rendered without joy, helps neither the servant nor the served. Nevertheless, all other possessions pale in to nothingness before service that is rendered in a spirit of joy. According to Gandhi, servant leadership does not mean you always do what people want. Service must be conducted within the bounds of moral values – it must be truthful service, you may not always tell people what they want to hear. You will have to tell them when you think they are wrong. One of the challenges of leadership is to develop harmony between service and the power that is necessary for the exercise of leadership. The ideal is power derived solely from service and used only for service.

 

vii. Self-Realization

 

Gandhi believes that what he wants to achieve, what he has been striving for those thirty years is self-realization, to see God face to face, to attain Moksha, to live and move and have his being in pursuit of this goal. All that he did by way of speaking and writing and his ventures in the political field were directed to this same end. But as he has believed what is possible for one is possible for all, his experiments have not been conducted in the closet but in the open and he do not think that this fact detracts from their spiritual value.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how?

 

This book has helped me to understand how one becomes a servant and value based leader through simplicity and stickiness to truth. The lessons I gained from the life of this great man in the history of leaders has many important lessons in it. This book is one of the books that I have been dreaming to read. The way he passed through challenging situations keeping his values of truth and nonviolence was so amazing and inspirational.

 

4. Quotes: Are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you.

 

“I saw that a man of truth must also be a man of care.”

 

“It has always been a mystery to me how men can feel themselves honored by the humiliation of their fellow beings.”

 

“Even differences prove helpful where there are tolerance. Charity and truth.”

 

“I have often found by experience that man makes his plans to be often upset by God, but at the same time, where the ultimate goal is the search of Truth, no matter how a man’s plans are frustrated, the issue is never injurious and often better than expected.”

 

“He who would go in for novel experiments must begin with himself. That leads to a quicker discovery of Truth, and God always protects the honest experimenter.”

 

“If poverty is a bar, poor men can never marry.”

 

“A votary of truth is often obliged to grope in the dark.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

The way the book is wrote and organized is so fine; however, the usage of some local and religious language has limited my understanding in some areas.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful? 

 

None.

 

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment. 

 

None.

 

Please rate the following questions on a scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                           9
B. How helpful were the contents?                          9
C. How easy was it to understand?                           9
D. Would you recommend it to others?                   9
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?       9 

 


 

 

Turn the Ship Around; a True Story of Turning Followers in to Leaders

 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book provides the specific mechanisms the writer used on the Santa Fe to achieve the transformation. The book teaches what the writer did, how the crew reacted and how the mechanisms matured with time. This is a great story, one of self-discovery, tension and the lonely self-doubts of the leader who sets off on the unknown path. It shows mechanisms on how to interact as people and are universally applicable. The principles here are applicable in organizations, businesses, governments and family.

 

The book presents a comprehensive paradigm shift for how we think about leadership. The writer, captain Marquet has coined the phrase leader – leader to differentiate it from the leader follower approach that traditional leadership models have espoused. It is a call to action a manifesto for all those frustrated workers and boss for whom the current leadership structure just is not working.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples from your own life.

 

 

i. Leadership

 

The writer indicates that; when I served in the US Navy, I had firsthand experience with an outdated leadership model. Here is what my Naval academy leadership book told me about being a leader… Leadership is the art, science, or gift by which a person is enabled and privileged to direct the thoughts, plans and actions of others in such a manner as to obtain and command their obedience, their confidence, their respect and their loyal cooperation; meaning that leadership is all about controlling people. In contrast to this, the writer believes that Even if this approach and definition has brought about many successes so far, in our modern world, the most important work we do is cognitive, so it is not surpassing that a structure developed for physical work is not optimal for intellectual work. People who we treat as followers have the expectations of followers and act like followers. As followers, they have limited decision-making authority and little incentive to give the utmost of their intellect, energy and passion. Those who take orders usually run at half speed, underutilizing their imagination and initiative.

 

 

ii. Leader - Leader Approach

 

The writer recommends this approach to leadership. This structure is fundamentally different from the leader follower structure. As its core is the belief that we can all be leaders and in fact, it is best when we all are leaders. Leadership is not some mystical quality that some possess and others do not. As humans, we all have what it takes and we all need to use our leadership abilities in every aspect of our work life. The leader - leader model not only achieves great improvements in effectiveness and morale but also makes the organization stronger. Most critically, these improvements are enduring decoupled from the leader’s personality and presence. Leader - leader structures are significantly more resilient and they do not rely on the designated leader always being right. Further leader - leader structures spawn additional leaders throughout the organization naturally.

 

 

iii. Focus

 

While explaining what has happened in their organization, the writer states that there is a powerful and effective culture of open, honest discussion about what went wrong, and what could have gone better. What happens then is that we evaluate ships based on the mistakes they make. Avoiding mistakes becomes the prime focus of the crew and leadership. The best way not to make a mistake is not to do anything or make any decisions. It dawned on me the day I assumed command that focusing on avoiding errors is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of procedures and detecting impending major problems before they occur, but it is a debilitating approach when adopted as the objective of an organization. You are destined to fail. No matter how good you get at avoiding mistakes, you will always have errors on something as complex as submarine. You might reduce the number and severity but there will never be zero. They may be such minor errors as reading a gauge wrong or scheduling two conflicting events but people always makes mistakes. Thus, they always feel bad about themselves. Therefore, instead of focusing on mistakes focus has to be towards looking for a better result.

 

 

iv. Excellence

 

According to the writer success is vein; success is a a move towards excellence, not an absence of failure, not avoidance of a critique or an incident. He states that as a leader, I resolved to change the peoples thinking towards achieving. He stated that we would focus on exceptional operational effectiveness for the submarine to achieve great things. Part of achieving excellence would be acquiring an intimate understanding of what we went through, which is what we learn from them and what we needed to do to move further in an exceptional and excellent way.

 

 

v. Thinking Aloud

 

This is one of the writer’s mechanism for control. He said that when I heard what my watch officers were thinking, it made it much easier for me to keep my mouth shut and let them execute their plans. It was generally when they were quit and I did not know what they would do next I was tempted to step in. Thinking aloud is essential for making the leap from leader’s - followers to leaders - leaders. Added to that, he said Later when I was the head of the tactical inspection team for two years; I rode most of the submarines in the pacific. I can tell you that forward or aft, attack submarine or ballistic missile submarine, there is tremendous reluctance for the junior officers to tell their superiors anything other than 100% certified information. There is no room in our military language and no pictures in our heads for the kinds of context rich conversations that are critical to good team performance. We are not comfortable talking about hunches, gut feelings, or anything with probabilities attached to it. Thinking aloud also works as a mechanism for organizational clarity. If all you need your people to do is follow orders, it is not important that they understand what you are trying to accomplish. However, we operate in a highly complex world, with the vagaries of an ever-changing environment and the opposition of a diligent and patient enemy.

 

 

vi. Competence

 

Competence means that people are technically competent to make decisions they make. On a submarine, it means having specific technical understanding of physics, electricity, sound in water, metallurgy and so on. Therefore, there must be a push of decision-making and control to lower and lower levels in the organization. In doing so, the culture of deliberate action taking, readiness to learn at all times, specification of goals are very important. Mistakes always happen and when it comes to managing our business, we should not reject that mistakes are inevitable and we must come up with a way to reduce them.

 

 

vii. Clarity

 

Clarity means all people at all levels of an organization clearly and completely understand about their organization. This is important because people in the organization make decisions against a set of criteria that included what the organization is trying to accomplish. If clarity of purpose is misunderstood, then the criteria for decision - making will be skewed and suboptimal decisions may occur. In doing so, you must build trust and take care of your people, use your legacy for inspiration, use guiding principles for decision criteria, use immediate negotiation to reinforce desired behaviors, begin with the end in mind and encourage a questioning attitude over blind obedience.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how?

 

This book is the first of its kind in elaborating the new leadership model that aspires the creation of leader – leader environment other than the old leader – follower approach. Of course, it is a bit difficult for me to agree with the writer on the particular point where everyone has to go for leadership. Anyways, what I can say is that the writer has added a question in my mind to look for another approach for leadership.

 

4. Quotes: Are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

“If the crew does not know and understand the battle plan before then, defeat is   almost certain.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

The philosophy that the writer brings in his book is so smart. It was my first time to see an approach that pushes for leader – leader approach. However, regardless of the organizational benefit it might have, I do not exactly believe that this approach will work everywhere. Everyone cannot be a leader at the same time, we all have our own qualities; some of us are interested in technical issues while some of us are excellent in leadership. Other than this, the book is full of technical words that directly addresses the submarine issues and hence these have created a difficulty in understanding it very well.

 

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful? 

 

Yes, Of course they are helpful

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment. 

 

As I have said, even if I appreciate the lesson, I do not agree with the approach of leadership that the writer has recommended.

 

Please rate the following questions on a scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A. How interesting was it to read?                         8
B. How helpful were the contents?                         8
C. How easy was it to understand?                        7
D. Would you recommend it to others?                  7
E. What is the overall rating you would give it?       8 

 


 

A History of Modern Ethiopia (1855 to 1991)

 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?                                                

 

This book is aimed at addressing what the Historians of Ethiopia have come to regard as the Modern period of the country history, the 19th and 20 centuries. It discusses the overall history of the Ethiopian people and its succeeding governments. It addresses the roads travelled to form the current Ethiopian state. In A History of Modern Ethiopia, Bahru Zewde provides a compact and comprehensive history of Ethiopia from 1855 to 1991. The text is valuable in that it provides an historical overview of virtually the entire area of present-day Ethiopia, with sections on the south of the country, largely ignored by previous historians, as well as on the better-documented semitic north.                                                                                                      

 

2.What were the seven ideas that were most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples of your own life.

 

i. Ethiopia

 

According to the writer, the term Ethiopia is of Greek origin and in classical times was used as a generic and rather designation for the African land mass to the south of Egypt. The first known specific application of the term to the Ethiopian region is found in the Greek version of a trilingual inscription of the time of Ezana, the aksumite king who introduced christianity in to Ethiopia towards the middle of the 4th century AD. This adoption of the term continued with the subsequent translation of the Bible in to geez, the old literary language. The kibre negest (glory of kings), written in the early 14th century of the story of Queen of Sheba and king solomon, not only linked the Ethiopian kings to the house of Israel, but also sealed the Identification of the term Ethiopia with the country; since the 13th century, when a dynasty that claimed to represent restoration of the Solomonic line came to rule the country, its rulers have styled themselves, Kings of Kings of Ethiopia.

 

ii. Ignored South and East

 

Ethiopia, a country which is said to have represented all the four directions fail to have incorporated the southern and eastern part of it in its History. Almost throughout the book, what is detailed is the history of the Northerners in their fight for controlling the state power, mainly through military power. Its only very recently, during Emperor Minilik that todays Ethiopia gains its shape, in a bloody battle that’s fought with the Southern and South eastern population. That’s why till, today, half part of the population feels to be ignored as part of Ethiopia.

 

iii. Dictatorship, Monarchy

 

All the Ethiopian rulers who have struggled to maintain state power have suffered a lot of challenges both internally and externally. All of them has used heavy force to silence the challenges that have faced them. This results in the killings of thousands of Ethiopians. It was a common task to kill each other as all the rulers in different directions tries to control state power. However, all of them has suffered a lot to the extent of losing their life. Tewodros is the first who have tried to unite Ethiopia till he was said to have committed suicide before completing his mission. Yohannis was the ruthless leader Ethiopia has ever registered, next to Minilik. He is reported to have killed thousands for denying to their faith. Minilik subjugated the southern and eastern part of Ethiopia and incorporated them forcefully in to the current Ethiopian state. Mengistu H/Mariam was the military dictator who shed the blood of the Ethiopians in a day light till he fled to Zimbabwe for political Asylum.

 

iv. Independence

 

Ethiopia is said to have been the only country in Africa continent that maintains its independence. However, this fact is collapsed with the Invasion of Italy for five years ( 1935 - 1940). It has fought different battles starting from that of Gundet and Gura with Egypt to the Ethio - Italian war at Adwa. The Ethio - Italian war has thus been recorded in the history books as the most significant war Ethiopia has won over the European nation at a time the Europeans were scrambling for the partition of Africa. However, Independence doesn't mean development. No one was more acutely well aware of this fact than the young Ethiopians whose modern education has equipped them with the intellectual power to analyze the ills of their society. For them the battle of Adwa was meaningless if it was not attended by Economic Development and a rise in the status of the peasantry. By failing to reform, independent Ethiopia would be living only on borrowed time. Their fears were sadly confirmed forty years after Adwa.

 

v. Foreign Relation

 

As for the foreign powers presence, it represented both a threat and an opportunity to Ethiopia. It was threat to the cherished independence of the country. At the same time it opened the new possibilities of introducing western technology particularly military technology and of modernizing the country. Thus the attitude of Ethiopian rulers towards the foreign powers was marked by ambivalence; they wanted their technology but were apprehensive of their designs. With regards to foreign Affairs, the country has maintained a relationship with USA, British, Italy, Sweden, French, Portuguese and etc. Specifically, the US and Ethiopia established their first relationship in 1953 and that paved the way for Ethiopia to benefit from US in area like Education, Military and etc. However, this came to an end when the Dictatorial Derg regime came to power in 1974, as Ethiopia faces herself with the Soviet Socialist ideology.      

 

vi. Heroism and Dignity

 

All the rulers that have ruled Ethiopia were absolute dictators. Almost all of them have shed the blood of their fellow Ethiopian brothers for securing their state power with monopoly. The dictatorship that has manifested didn't allow anyone to oppose the rulers and doing so will cost a life. The longest serving Emperor Hailesillasie who ruled Ethiopian for a solid 44 years was treated as someone appointed by God. No one expected his deposition from power till a group of military officers from his own army depose him and put him to jail. The next dictator who ruled Ethiopia for 17 years ruled the country in a Military fashion, shading the blood of many Ethiopians. However, the cruelty of the leaders didn't stop the students to organize the Ethiopian Students Movement against the regime. In a social order which banned political dissent, Ethiopian students assumed the burden of Opposition with heroism and dignity. It was a task for which the Ethiopian past had hardly prepared them. Yet, despite the growing intensity of the confrontation, the outbreak of the Ethiopian revolution in 1974 caught both the regime and the students unawares. The students, their years of opposition notwithstanding, had not yet formulated a clear and viable alternative.

 

vii. Unity vs Centralization

 

These two concepts of governance has so far been the essence of the leaders struggle in the country. Still these ideas are the themes ongoing issues among the contemporary elites. Some of the groups, prefer the idea of uniting the country again along with one flag, one language and one culture while the others push forward with idea of unity in diversity ( Federalism). The oppressive effort made by by Tewodros, Yohannis, Hailsillasie and Mengistu Hailemariam was for ensuring that Ethiopia is a unitary state under a single dictator. Its only post 1991 that the country has devised a federal form of governance.

 

3. How will these ideas and /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

The book is another eye opener in to the details of the Ethiopia. As it addresses the history of the country from 1855 to 1991, I can confidently state to have gained a lot of knowledge our all the goods and bad of the past.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

“What is sinful is to be ruled by despots, not to rise against them.”

 

“Better be a lion for a day and die than live the life of a lamb for a thousand days.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

The book is still very condensed and dense, missing a significant part of the history of the Southern and Eastern peoples.The Author said that While it is not Uncommon for Ethiopians to refer to themselves, particularly in informal circumstances, as Habasha ( Abyssinians), officially they prefer to be called Ethiopians. However, this is hardly acceptable by the south who always deny to call themselves as Habashas. They always consider the North as local colonizers.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.        

 

I appreciate if the third version of the book covers the history of the country post 1991. In addition it would have been good if its more extended.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor. 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                       10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                        10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                     10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?    10

 


 

My Life, My Vision for the Oromo and the People of Ethiopia

 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?                                                

 

This book is a personal autobiography of an Oromo, Ethiopian Man who is born in the hamlet of the Aile Ebicha, Boji Dirmeji district, in the Gimbi zone, West Wellegga, on July 9, 1930. His fathers full name is Demeksa Senbeto Gerba. His mothers name is Nacisse Serda. The most important motivation for him to write the story of his life is his desire to write down what he know and believe about the Oromo, the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia. Furthermore, he wanted his descendants to know how he lived and grew up as a child.                                                                                                                                                                        

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples from your own life.

 

i. Team Work

 

Its common at anytime that many Oromo were being imprisoned and the explanation for their imprisonment was always that they were supporters of OLF (a banned political party that struggles for the complete independence of Oromia). But the truth was that OLF was not operating in the highlands of Ethiopia. His friends and he personally feel that the government was practicing a policy of intimidation, suppression and total subjugation of the Oromo people. So, they met in several groups in different places because of the fact that they always felt threatened by the ubiquitous movement of the government security forces. Specifically, as crackdown on the Oromo continued around late 1990th, Oromo intellectuals living in Finfinne ( the Capital of Ethiopia) began to contact each other to meet in larger groups and discuss the increasingly oppressive environment in which the Oromo of all zones were finding themselves. Oromo intellectuals had always met in small groups in the homes of different people to commiserate and consult each other about the anguish of their people. It was realized by all that such a struggle is not less effective than an armed struggle because dangers in both cases are the same. It was well understood that imprisonment and torture of the members of such a political party would intensify, but the team members were willing to sacrifice. This led to the establishment of a non violent political party that secures a seat in Ethiopian Parliament during the 2005 Ethiopian election.

 

ii. Assimilation Policy

 

The previous Imperial regimes in Ethiopia devoted most of their energies towards discouraging or destroying the culture, language and religions of the non-Amhara ethnic groups, particularly those in the south and east of the empire. * Amhara is the second largest ethnic group in Ethiopia* Even when one considers the integration of certain members of non-Amhara groups in to the upper echelons of the ruling class and the imperial bureaucracy, what stands out is the small number of such groups represented. Even though the Oromo’s are the largest single ethno national group in the empire, few of that groups ever occupied very high positions in the imperial bureaucracy of the army. In the 1960s there appeared to be a systematic effort to coopt non-Amhara ethnic groups in to the imperial ruling class. However, these strategy has failed as the core of the strategy was remained the gradual Amharization of these groups without integrating them as equals or allowing them to share power in any meaningful way. Amhara culture implicitly presented as the defining trait of the Ethiopian Nationality. According to the writer, there were no Oromo representation even during the first ever written constitution of Ethiopia in 1931. However, the constitution binds to the Oromo people as well.

 

iii. Economic Strength

 

In addition to participating in the political arena, the Author has an Entrepreneurial mentality. He felt that the Oromo people, as being marginalized from both the Political and Economic environment of the country, is in deep poverty. This led him and his comrades to feel the establishment of a private bank that aims at strengthening the economic capacity of the Oromo People. The establishment of Awash Bank was not motivated by making money or becoming famous, but to help the Oromo people participate in the economic life of Ethiopia without hurting anybody. This does not mean that Ethiopia as a whole was on a thriving Economy, but the Oromo were in an intolerable condition even when compared to poor Amhara Area. Oromo resources were being exploited by others ever since Menilik II received superior weapons from Europe and invaded Oromia and controlled its economic and natural resources. I have personally observed that the significant proportion of the wealth in my country is in the hand of the few groups who have benefitted from the socio, economic and political involvement they have.

 

iv. Commitment and Determination

 

It is the story of someone who pulled himself up by his boot strip, obtained a graduate degree in Economics and LLB and became a senior official of the government of Ethiopia (under emperor Hailesillasie), a member of the Board of directors of the World Bank, a diplomat to the United Nations and President and CEO of Awash International Bank and finally cofounder and chairman of the Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement for six years and member of parliament for five years. The road that he walks is very long, yet after a dynamic global experience, he couldn't be satisfied till he have returned back to his country and serve the community from which he emerge from. This took him a lot of years, waiting 17 years in exile, fighting with the security personnel, expending pocket money and etc. These all are targeted at enabling his community to uplift from the marginalization from the socio, economic and political involvement.

 

v. Oromo Within Ethiopia

 

(OLF Vs OFDM) - Oromo liberation front is one of the political parties that struggles for the complete independence of the Oromo people. It is an organization thats labeled as a terrorist organization by the Government of Ethiopia (but this doesn't necessarily reflect the view of the public). With regards to the similarity and difference between the two, the writer indicates that , he always made it clear that we were not opposing OLF, but wanted the Oromo to choose to remain in Ethiopia and this was out of concern that the Oromo people might be led in to believing that independence for the Oromo was the best option. Being strong in Ethiopia and playing its democratic role as the largest ethnic group was the best option for Oromo. Complete independence for the Oromo would be against the interest of the Oromo people. By contrast, an independent Oromo nation in the horn of Africa, might attract envious detractors and involve roomier in endless wars. We have to be peaceful, but staunchly hold on to the principles of self determination and democracy.                

 

vi. Oromo Language

 

During the past regimes, the Ethiopian ruling elites did everything possible to prevent the development of Oromo nationalism by coopting or liquidating Oromo leadership, by destroying Oromo religious and cultural institutions, by dividing Oromo and most of all by undermining the growth of Oromo Language and the flourishing of written literature in many ways. The issue of naming was a big challenge during the old regimes. One has to have an Amhara name to be recognized as an Ethiopian. In his words, the writer says that as head of the budget preparation examination section, I had to meet a number of senior government officials. Many of them saw me for the first time and were surprised that some one they did not know, with a strange name, was in such a key government post. Some of them had the temerity to advice me to choose a nice ordinary name and sound normal, instead of being asked; “Whats your name again?” Very often such people do not intend to insult me. Indeed some of them thought that they were pleasing me. They just did not know how I felt about my name. To me, it reflected cultural arrogance and insensitivity of the highest order. My answer to such people had to be polite, because they were talking from a position of strength and authority. Arguing over a budget issue, an Amhara official once lost his temper and said, “After all, you are serving at our will.” When I asked him “ who are you?” He was completely silent because he was embraced. I did not complain this incident to anyone at a higher position as I didn't felt that anybody would do something about it.

 

vii. Federalism

 

As a country with at least 80 diverse ethnic groups, genuine federalism was the only solution to uplift the country to a better democracy.It is natural that Amhara elite prefers a unitary state because that was the system that allowed them to appoint provincial governments and all other representatives of the central government from Finfinne. According to the writer, almost all the Amhara intellectuals he have discussed politics with, in the last 20 years, opposed federalism based on ethnic organizations in Ethiopia. Some are willing to accept federalism if it is not based on nationality or ethnicity. It is hard to imagine that a modern person would entertain the dream of dominating another society. It is impossible to go back to the time when Amhara governments were appointed by the central governments and lorded over the Oromo and the other people of Ethiopia. According to all Oromo political parties or factions, the Oromo will not continue to accept that state of affairs. The least they accept now is genuine federalism where in the states of the federation and federal governments respect each others constitutionally defined areas of responsibility. This is also my personal dream.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help me in a practical way, both in my daily personal life and in helping me create a better world? If so how?

 

Even if I am Oromo myself, in addition to a little of what I know before, this book gives me a great insight about the past miseries that my fore fathers have faced. I can say, the book have helped me in understanding the fact that someone born in a rural and marginalized area, with commitment and determination can reach at a high stage. To be honest, the exemplary life demonstrated by Mr. Bulcha Demeksa is quit inspiring!

 

With regards to the political reprisal, I personally have faced several problems during my life both from my childhood to today. My father was jailed for being suspected of having a link to a banned Oromo Liberation Front. I was denied a job opportunity due to my perceived political opinion and mainly due to the fact that I belong to an ethnic group ( Oromo) that they fear will one day be dominating the country. To be honest, even today, to be an educated Oromo, with a feeling of nationalism, costs a life!

 

4. Quotes: Are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention? If so quote them and comment as to why they were important to you.

 

“The Oromo never had any animosity toward the Amhara peasantry because they were as poor as themselves. The only Amhara they really knew and dreaded were government officials and absentee landlords.”

 

“Oromo Nationalism cannot be repressed anymore, and therefore loyalty to the Oromo cause comes before anything else for me.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Regardless of the detailed narrations about his own life, as an Oromo Ethiopian, I would have been happier if the writer addresses the following issues:

 

What would be the fate of the Oromo people given the fact that all the powerful nations, including the USA are one of those who have supported the coming to power of the minority ethnic group to power.

 

What would be the fate of the Oromo Liberation Front (is that likely for OLF to change its struggle of complete independence to Self rule within Ethiopia)

 

Is there any hope for the leading Oromo Peoples Democratic Organization to be a real liberator, an independent decider on the matters of the Oromo people?

 

I am also unclear weather the writer expects a unity across all the Oromo political factions

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

Given that, there are elites still operating both within the country and across the world for returning the country from the existing federal one to a unitary system, how could this be reconciled with the ongoing fierce Oromo Nationalism, is one of my questions!  

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                           10
B.  How helpful were its contents?                            10
C.  How easy was it to understand?                          10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?         10

 


 

 

Write it Up: Practical Strategies for Writing and Publishing Journal Articles

 

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the author is trying to convey in the book?

 

This book develops a practical approach to writing and publishing journal articles, one rooted in the writers personal experience and the good advice he shared from others. The book emphasis on writing not for mere publication, but for impact and for making a difference in the scholarly conversation. It develops a guiding tool to write for impact and thus gain a seat at the table with sharp knives and candles.                                                                                                

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples from your own life.

 

a. Writing for Impact

 

Writing is hard and painful. Written records will outlast and our ideas must be fixed and archived for present and future scholars to evaluate them. All the reasons for writing sort in to few clusters. The first cluster has a noble reasons, the reasons we learn as undergraduates; to share knowledge, to advance our science, to foster positive changes in the world. These are good reasons, and we should resist applying either our aged cynicism or youthful irony to them. The second cluster has the practical reasons, the honest and pragmatic motives that respond to the realities of scientific institutions; to get a job; to keep a job; to promote ones own status and to build ones own credibility with funding agencies, community groups and the public at large. The third cluster has the intrinsically motivated reasons. Many people find writing articles a fun.

 

b. Impactful Writing

 

Unlike writing for mere publication, writing for impact seeks to influence peers, to change minds about something that the field cares about. Writing for impact is trying to change the conversation: pointing out something new and interesting, changing how people think about a familiar problem, refining the fields vocabulary, adding new concepts and tools.

 

c. Collaboration

 

Collaboration is the publication of something through the coalition of two or more individuals. People collaborate for many reasons, and the worst is the unspoken hope that someone else will do the writing. There are many good reasons to collaborate. Some projects need a team, like multisite projects, evidence based outcome trials, and longitudinal studies. Another good reason is to pick up skills, ideas and habits from other researchers. Working with your peer is a kind of continuing education that expands your research world view and toolbox.

 

d. Be Short and Sleek

 

We know we shouldn't be wordy. We have been told million times, but telling people to avoid wordiness is to tell them to quit smoking, to exercise more, and to stop wrapping bacon around their doughnuts. Wordiness is like secondhand smoke for your readers: writers can do what they want in their homes, but the rest of us shouldn't have to suffer their bad habits in public. It is also very important not to ignore the power of punctuations; many people undermine the role of punctuation in writing and they didn't give it enough attention. However, they play a very critical role in shaping the quality of your writing.

 

e. Taxonomy of Implications

 

Whatever we do, especially when it comes to writing is aimed at contributing something for the scientific world. It is a research of knowledge based on situation and context. Viewed globally, a research can have; implications for theory, how something works, why or when something happens, what something is, how research should happen, claims made in other published papers, things that happen in the scary and overrated world. We need to make a connection among ideas to clearly indicate how our work contributes to the scientific world.

 

f. References

 

The rhetorical function of references is under appreciated, and it is easy to understand by comparing cases when it goes well and awry. There are many reasons for which we have to write a reference; seeding the clouds for desired reviewers, attracting specific readers to your paper, boosting the impact factor of a journal you publish in, recovering sunk costs and waving hello to an obscure journal. It is recommendable not to write a reference that has never referred to.

 

g. Abstract

 

Abstracts, for several reasons, should be one of the last things to write. Writing a concise overview of your work is painful, and it is human nature to defer painful things to the brighter future. And it is hard to summarize your work when you don’t know what you will say. Nut whenever you get it, take the time to craft a good abstract. A good abstract accomplishes two great things. First, it attracts database searches with keywords and their synonymous so that your paper pops up when it should. Second a good abstract provides a persuasive snapshot of your work’s main ideas, methods, findings and implications.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how? 

 

I always aspired to write a book that can contribute to the peace, development and prosperity of my country in particular and the world at large in general. However, I haven't succeeded so far. One of the reasons is due to the lack of knowledge on how to succeed in writing professionally. Hence, this is the first book I have ever read on writing skills and I believe I got a good knowledge on the subject matter.

 

 4. Quotes:  Are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention?  If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you.

 

The quotations that particularly got my attention were:

 

“Authors are entitled to their reasons, but they aren't entitled to an audience.”

 

“A bit of planning beforehand, a bit of thought about who is the desired audience and what journals reach it, can avert needless rewriting.”

 

“Ignorance never stopped people from having strong opinions.”

 

“Write with others as you would have them write with you.”

 

“Popularity, after all, isn't an argument for the validity of your work or a good reason for doing something.”

 

“Don’t say anything if you don't have anything unique and insightful to say.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

In some areas, it looks like it is language book that shows the details of writing including grammar. Though its nice to be as such, it gave me hard time understanding it.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No Exercises in the book.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.                      

 

The book, though well organized, it lacks clarity and is full of jargons and technical   terms. It could have been possible to use the easiest words possible to address the   readers at all levels of education

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                       8
B.  How helpful were the contents?                       8
C.  How easy was it to understand?                      7
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                7
E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?     7.5

 



The Oromo of Ethiopia (1570 - 1860)

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the author is trying to convey in the book?                                                

 

The Oromo, who constitute nearly half the population of Ethiopia, are the largest single national group in the Horn of Africa. Yet the history of the Oromo has been totally neglected. Since the creation of the modern Ethiopian Empire in the 1800s, historians have chosen to ignore the Oromo, who, for political reasons, were portrayed as "newcomers" to Ethiopia and generally considered as people "without history". This book breaks with that tradition and establish conclusively not only that the Oromo were one of the indigenous peoples of Ethiopia, but also that they had their own fascinating history, culture, religion, and political institutions.      

                                                                                                                                                                               

2. What are the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal example from your own life.

 

i. The Five Gibe States

 

As stated in above, until very recently Oromo history has been either neglected or it has been totally ignored or it has been distorted by prejudice. The Ethiopian ruling class even succeeded in elevating its anti Oromo prejudice to the plane of state ideology, which was uncritically repeated in the name of scholarship. However, the successful leadership demonstrated by the five Gibe Oromo states has been remarkable. The five states were; Limu Enarya, Gomma, Gumma, Gera and Jimma.  These states have tirelessly contracted their administration and wrote their own history that transcend in to generation. These are the states that have created a strong foreign policy, a good economic policy, used global ideologies to shape their destiny, freed slaves and so much. The pick of administration in the region was during the reign of Abba bogibo, a man who tirelessly succeeded in leading a very stable and strong state in the area. Up until the force of Conqueror Minilik of Shoa comes, the Five gibe Oromo states were on a trackable record of strength and prosperity.

 

ii. Gada System

 

As has been done by many, the writer of this book also narrated about the Gada System in detail. The Gada system is a system of classes (luba) that succeed each other every eight years in assuming military, economic, political and ritual responsibilities. Each gada class remains in power during a specific term (Gada) which begins and ends with a formal power transfer ceremony. Before assuming a position of leadership, the gada class is required to demonstrate a strong leadership capacity than their ancestors. The male member of the Oromo society were classified in to generation set gada grades. The set is the group of people who share the same status and who perform their rites of passage together, whereas the grades are the stages of development through which the group pass.

 

iii. Leadership Requirements in Gada System

 

While varying from region to region conformed to a certain general pattern which justifies us in speaking of a Gada government, there was an extensive election campaign ranging from weeks to months, extending over long distances among different clans. The oratorical talent expected of the candidates, the traditional fund of knowledge, which they were supposed to have acquired, the wisdom for settling disputes and taking quick action in difficult situation, tangible past military achievements that they could boast of during the election campaign, all these constituted a criteria for leadership which seem to have precluded many from the offices. Three qualities - Oratory, Knowledge of the history and traditions of the society, and past military achievements with recognizable potential for future leadership - constituted these three major criteria. In all there was an Abba Gada ( the father of Gada in Power). During the eight year period, the Abba Gada was a central authority, a single political head and the spokesman for the confederacy.

 

iv. Moggaasa (Adoption)

 

Mogassa is an important oromo institution which seems to have facilitated the process of the migration. One form of moggasa is knows as guddifacha ( a foster adopting a child). This still exists. Traditionally, the adopted son was looked upon as a real son, and he enjoyed all rights of a true son, the first remained angafa ( the oldest son) with all the rights and privileges. The second form of adoption is known as moggassa, adoption in to a clan or tribe. The adopted individual or group could either be Oromo or non Oromo. The adoption was undertaken by the Abba Gada on behalf of his gossa (clan). Before adoption, animals were slaughtered and a knife was dipped in the blood of the victim and planted in the assembly, composed of the elders of the gossa and the representatives of their gossa’s. Then the Abba Gada said a prayer blessing the new members and the adopted individual, or groups touched the knife planted in the assembly, repeating in chorus what the Abba Gadda had to say; ‘’ I hate what you hate, I like what you like, I fight whom you fight, I go where you go, I chase whom you chase,..etc. This oath was binding and unbreakable on both sides. The adopted groups now collectively become the sons of the gossa and its new sons and the knife symbolized the readiness of the gossa to fight for the right of its new members, while the new members pledged themselves to fight for the rights and cause of their new gossa’s.

 

v. Political Marriage

 

Leaders who have succeeded in preventing war from their people and secure peace in their territory used a different strategy to ensure that. One of the mechanism was gift giving and political marriage. Leaders marry a daughter from the opponents that they think may potential harm their administration. Wealth states like Limmu Ennarya were also very successful in securing its border and territory through providing ample of gifts such as gold to any opponent that they think will conquer them one day. This has helped them for so long in building a strong state that lasts for so long.

 

vi. Trade

 

Trade has contributed a lot in shaping the dynamics and ideology of rulers of the five gibe states. Especially those traders from the Northern Ethiopia played a significant role in facilitating the spread of Islam in the region. Political leaders have utilized the new ideology as a tool to unite the people and govern without harming the traditional religion of the people. Catholic missionaries were also operating in the region, hence opening the paradigm and perspective of the rulers to a different ideological perspectives. These has enabled them to lead their states while learning gradually.

 

vii. Foreign Policy

 

Leaders of the gibe states have used a tolerant foreign policy in allowing the foreigners to freely operate in the society. Construction of churches, free movement and operation of catholic missionaries was ensured. In addition to the ties they have maintained through Trade, the policy they followed to an outsiders helped them to sell their items and generate sufficient revenue. While doing so, they have facilitated a special privilege for those outsiders so as to encourage their ties with the states. This has enabled them to build strong bond with foreigners, hence contributing them to stay for so long up until a local invader from Shoa take over the area.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in practical way both in your daily personal life and in helping you create a better world? If so, how?

 

Well, this is a book about a fascinating story that my forefathers have went through. Knowing history is a precondition to shape the future. Specially, my country is in a very critical condition than ever before. As a country of 80 different ethnic groups, the history of the country needs to be well known in a way that represents the facts and myths, facts and fictions of the past. Its only a true story narrated with a clear intention to shape the future that can heal the wounds of the past. Otherwise, a biased one will end up breaking the country in to pieces. To do so, the role of young leaders like me is immense. That’s why, this book adds up to something important about the story of the Five Gibe Oromo states.

 

4. Quotes: are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

Yes, the following are the two critical quotes that caught my attention:

       

“The independent existence of the Oromo was brought to an end abruptly and rudely by the creation of the modern Ethiopian empire during and after 1880’s. The conquest and annexation of their territory not only deprived them of their sovereignty but also of their history, because of the creation of the myths and untruths long held and circulated in the christian kingdom about the Oromo, who were generally portrayed as people without a history.”

 

“It is hoped that Ethiopia will one day be able to transform itself radically and create a democratic system which will right the old wrongs, redress the old injustice, heal old wounds and more importantly, ensure the genuine equality of all Ethiopians in every facets of life - political, economic, social, cultural and religious, which in turn will guarantee its survival. In the unity and equality of the Oromo and other people of Ethiopia lies the future of their country.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Absolutely No!

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.          

 

If I have to say the only thing I could say is to thank God for giving us someone who could write a hidden History about a people that is widely ignored by many historians.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                           10
B.  How helpful were the contents?                           10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                          10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?         10

 


 

Entrepreneurship; The Art of Succeeding In Business

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the author is trying to convey in the book?

 

The book deals with the art of succeeding in business. It enables readers with an exciting opportunity to conceptualize, plan and start a business. It clarifies the difference that lies within working for others and to one self.  It provides with an opportunity to establish realistic business goals, develop sales forecasts and estimate the potential income of one’s business. The book  illustrates the importance of evaluating personal goals, conduct surveys within the community to determine how the business can best serve customer needs, analyze other businesses that provide similar product/services and identify market niche that offers the best chance for success.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

i. Entrepreneurship

 

An entrepreneur is a person who organizes and manages a business undertaking the risk for the sake of profit. It begins with an idea or dream. Almost everybody has ideas for a new or better product or thinks of a needed service that no body else is providing. There is no shortage of ideas, but only a few of these become a reality. They are the people who make the dream become a reality. They are the one who locates the customers, and assembles and manages the people, material and assembles and manages the people, material equipment, facilities and money needed to bring the concept of life. Entrepreneurs are peoples and they come in all varieties. They are young and old, women and men, rich and poor, single and married, experienced and inexperienced. They are only different in that they have a passion for their business idea and use every moment as the opportunity to grow.

 

ii. Commitment

 

Every entrepreneur is presented with thousands of opportunities to decide that things will not work out. However they genuinely see obstacle as a challenge that must be overcome. Their choice is not to decide if the challenge will be met, but how. Successful entrepreneurs understand that in most circumstances, failure occurs when the entrepreneur just gives up and most consider this to be an acceptable choice. Some studies have shown fear of failure as one of the strongest traits of entrepreneurs. Frequently entrepreneurs succeed because they refuse to fail.

 

iii. Stamina  

 

Starting and growing a business is a continual process that requires a willingness to work harder than most people. One of the biggest differences between an employee and an an entrepreneur is that the entrepreneur is ultimately responsible for all aspects of their business and thus,  must be willing to work long and sometimes stressful hours to have it succeed. He is the one who needs to know how to balance an intense work schedule with the need to maintain healthy family relationships and recreational activities. It is really an exciting challenge of commitment and balanced priorities.

 

iv. Enthusiasm and Optimism

 

Entrepreneurs are peoples of vision. They see opportunity for change or improvement. They are people of enthusiasm. They believe in their business ideas, they believe that clients will will want their product or service and most importantly they believe in themselves. Success is built on the power of enthusiasm and power. These are the qualities that make other people take notice and allow the entrepreneur to continue when others give up.

 

v. Business Plan

 

A business plan is a tool to help ensure that your business concept is well founded and that you have the resources and skills needed to successfully lunch and operate your business. Business planning is really never finished, it is an ongoing job. It is a dynamic document which you can be amended at any time. After you develop your initial business plan and start and start your business, you will find both opportunities and setbacks that were not anticipated. Business success will depend on  how well the entrepreneur takes the advantage of the unforeseen opportunities and minimize the adverse effects of unplanned problems. The business plan greatly enhances the ability to recognize unplanned opportunity or setback and to determine how to effectively manage the new situation.

 

vi. Customer Survey

 

After personally developing a business plan based on personal experience and initiative feelings, entrepreneurs has to see another perspective, particularly prospective customers. No matter the type of quality product or service a given business organization produces, it is useless it has customers who has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Customers are the backbone of your success. Before investing a large amount of time and money in to your business, it is also important to determine weather there is enough potential business to be profitable. To make such a determination, one must find out how much customers are willing to pay for a product or services, how many people utilize your products or services, and how frequently do they buy or use the product. While conducting a survey, you need to look for genuine response, instead of nearby friends who worry not to hurt one’s feelings.

 

vii. Plan of Action

 

Having a well designed business plan only will not guarantee you a success. All the efforts has to be backed by a detailed plan of action. Along the list of actions to be done, a detailed time has to be set about the completion date. This level of planning makes it easier to focus on what has to be done each month, week, and day in order implement the start up strategy set forth in the business plan. The plan of action lists the steps you need to take and highlights when they should be started

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

This book really inspires me to think of looking inward for creating/starting my own business. It shows a detailed way to establish a business. Especially the business planning part is inspirational and encouraging to move forward with a business idea.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

“The first thing to do is to try. The second and the third steps are to try again and      again. The fourth step is to not quit until you have completed the task.”

 

“Our Aspirations are our possibilities.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Absolutely No! The Book is Great and self explanatory.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

No.

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

I don’t have anything else to add.

Please rate the following questions on a scale from 1 to 10.  Ten is good and one is poor.

A.  How interesting was it to read?                            10
B.  How helpful were the contents?                           10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                           10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                    10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

 




The Community Leadership Handbook

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the author is trying to convey in the book?

 

The main purpose of the book is to introduce readers to the basic knowledge of community leadership. It defines community as those people who share a particular place and all the resources located there. Community leaders are those people who work with others to develop and sustain the health of a community. A healthy community it implies that all the people in the community can meet their economic, social, physical, cultural and spiritual needs; to work together for the common good and participate in creating their future.

 

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it is important to you?

 

i. Framing Ideas

 

This implies defining opportunities and issues in ways that lead to effective action. It is to clearly identify what needs to be done, how it is to be done and why it is important to do it. Framing is just like taking a photograph; focusing only on what is important. It has at least four connected aspects; Analysis (Answering questions such as what is happening? What is the current reality? Values and Motivation Why we do something about this reality? What should guide our action, Vision.  What do we need the new reality to look like? Strategy - How do we achieve the new reality?

 

ii. Building Social Capital

 

Is the leadership competency of developing and maintaining relationships that allows us to work together and share resources inspire of our differences. These relationships can be between individuals, an individual and a group and between groups. Relationships that yield social capital are marked by trust ( the belief in and reliance on the honesty, integrity and reliability of the other party), Reciprocity ( a mutual, fair benefit from the relationship overtime), durability ( lasting overtime through stress and changing circumstances. Social capital is like financial capital. You can draw on your account only if you have deposited something in to it. Our ability to work together tomorrow depends a lot on how we treat each other today.

 

iii. Change

 

In mobilizing a given community towards intended target, a leader has to go through a certain change continuum. Social scientists have studied how changes are communicated and adopted in communities. Their research reveals that some groups of people accept and act on a new idea fairly soon. We can see the different types of community members as the following; Innovators (come up with new idea), Early Adopters (Open to new ideas and sign in quickly), Early Majority (Most likely responding to change initiatives), Late Majority (recognize change due to peer influence and wants to be on the winning side), Late Adopters (Actively resist change ideas early, wants to ensure that they face no risk at all).

 

iv. Appreciative Inquiry

 

Some communities have more confidence and security moving in to the future when they bring along parts of the past. Doing appreciative inquiry helps you define what is best about your community right now and how to preserve it. Using this tool  breaks the cycle of frustration and pessimism that hampers many community efforts. It enables the community to see the best of the past and the present through expanded communication and conversation about itself.

 

v. Visioning

 

Visioning is the process of defining what you want. It recognizes the reality of current conditions and trends. At the same time, visioning taps the values and hopes of the community, motivating and guiding activities to build the desired future. Visioning can produce a vision statement that gives a picture of an attainable future, clear reasons for which this picture of the future is important and worth achieving and hope for the future that translates in to action.  Three things are important to translate vision in to action; Prioritize Tasks, Develop Indicators and Set Goals.

 

vi. Effective Communication

 

Effective communication is not about sending and receiving messages, rather it is all about the creation of shared meaning.  Shared meaning is a situation where the messages intended by the sender is perfectly understood by the receiver. It is when the receiver understands the message along with the value and feeling of the message. We usually assume that sending a message equals sharing a meaning by forgetting that the meaning are usually held in people, not in words. Normally, communication is not only about what the sender intends rather it is what the listener perceives. Hence, community leaders need to be careful when delivering information to the members of the community.

 

vii. Goals

 

Any community leader should focus on the goals he/she planned to achieve in a certain period of time to reach his/her vision. Hence, goals need to be SMART; Specific:  focused on one priority item and a particular aspect of the priority. Measurable: with indicators that tell you when the goal has been accomplished including conditions that you can observe or quantify Achievable:  stated in a way that allows a reasonable chance of success, focused on things that the group can reasonably expect to influence while stretching a group greater efforts. Resourced: that is the means to achieve the goal are identified and accessible. Time Bound: stated with a clear deadline for achieving the goal that provides enough time to get the job done, but not so much time that people lose interest and motivation.

 

3. How will these ideas /lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world?

 

I can say this book is more of technical than those I have read before. It enables readers to get acquainted with different tools and strategies for creating a difference in a community. It provides ample of resources that can help in succeeding in achieving community objectives. The tools are also practicable.

 

4. Quotes; - are there any statements, which the author has made that particularly got your attention? If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you?

 

The quotes I liked best are:

 

“Our ability to work together tomorrow depends on how we treat each other everyday.”

 

“An effective communicator is not necessarily someone who send the most messages. It is someone whose messages are heard the way they were intended.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

Well, the examples taken in the book are mostly fitting to advanced nations only. For readers from different backgrounds, the illustrations and examples given might give them a hard time. I personally recommend the writers to reconsider globalizing the content  especially the different examples in the book) to a wide aspect of the world. Other than that, I can witness, the book is amazing and wonderful!

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.

 

The book is full of redundancy of ideas and I recommend that the next version will show us an improvement in this regard and have less reapeating!.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                          10

B.  How helpful were its contents?                           10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                         10

D.  Would you recommend it to others?                   10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

 


 

Why Nations Fail; The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

Assessment by Ziyad Rube Abdule (Ethiopia)

 

1. What is the main idea that the writer is trying to convey in the book?   

 

The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty, by economists Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, is an attempt to answer one of economics' oldest and most important questions: why are some nations rich and others poor? After setting aside a number of common theories that answer the question with theories about geography, genetics and culture, the authors argue that the best explanation of the distribution of wealth in the world is institutional. Specifically, the authors argue that rich countries are rich by virtue of having "inclusive institutions" or economic and political institutions that include the large majority of the population in the political and economic community. Inclusive institutions are democratic, in that they allow mass publics to vote and protect free speech such that political institutions respond to the interests of all persons. Inclusive institutions also set out clear property rights that are reliably enforced by adequate legal systems. They also tend to invest in technologies that benefit all persons and they treat persons equally under the law.              

                                                                        

2. What were the seven ideas which were personally most important to you and why? List these seven ideas followed by an explanation after each one as to why it was important to you. Use personal examples from your own life.

 

i. Institutions

 

Developed countries are wealthy because of “inclusive economic institutions.” Basically a combination of state and free market in which the state creates incentives for people to invest and innovate (through guaranteeing private property rights and enforcing contract law), The state enables investment and growth through providing education and infrastructure, which private business uses, and the state is controlled by its citizens, rather than monopolized by a small elite. Crucially, there needs to be a democratic principle at work in which people in politics establish institutions and laws which work for the majority of people, rather than just working to make them rich. The state also needs to maintain a monopoly on violence. The authors come to this conclusion through a number of comparative studies of countries which are in close geographical proximity to each other such as Mexico/America, South/ North Korea, Botswana/ Zimbabwe. They argue that the only factor which can explain why one of these countries is poor and the other rich is because of the institutional infrastructure which has been established through the last few decades/ centuries.

 

ii. Colonial Effect

 

There has been “a vicious circle” at work in many underdeveloped countries over the last three to four centuries  with their globalized history starting off with extractive institutions established by a colonial power (typically built on already existing internal extractive institutions), which, on independence, became even more extractive under post colonial rulers, which in turn lead to civil war as competing factions fought for control over the extractive institutions which then led to a decent into chaos and failed states. The authors see little hope for such countries. The British Colonial Authorities built extractive institutions which many post independence African politicians were only too happy to continue in order to enrich themselves. This happened in countries such as Sierra Leone, Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. The postcolonial rulers used their wealth to build personalized security forces which were answerable to them and also to rig elections;   money thus became essential to maintain power, with only those who have money able to maintain power. This creates incentives among the opposition to depose the existing leaders in order to gain power and wealth themselves, and to protect themselves from being killed off by the said existing leaders. The point here is that power has become an end in itself rather than as a means to developing a country.

 

iii. Political Willingness

 

As has been said again and again, a country can only move a step forward if the political leaders act responsibly and accountably. They have to demonstrate a high degree of commitment to allow the mass, the public in widely engaging in political space. Though there are countries who develop despite having authoritarian governments (such as China, South Korea) it is hard to sustain their growth without opening the political space. This needs a big determination from the leaders to face the reality and enable active public political engagement.

 

iv. Public Participation

 

Countries such as Egypt are poor because they have been ruled by a narrow elite that have organized society for their own benefit at the expense of the vast mass of people. (This also applies to North Korea, Sierra Leonne, Zimbabwe). Countries such as Great Britain and The United States are wealthy because their citizens overthrew the elites who controlled power and created a society where political rights were much more broadly distributed, where the government was accountable and responsive to its   citizens and where the great mass of people could take advantage of economic opportunities. (This also applies to Japan and Botswana). The higher the public participation in all affairs of the country, the higher the probability of countries to have a sustainable economic growth.

 

v. Inclusive and extractive political institutions.

 

A state needs to be inclusive for economic growth to occur; that is, it needs to both be chosen by its citizens and have a centralized control over legitimate violence. Extractive political and economic institutions tend to support each other (which then means the masses don’t support them there is disincentive!) Why not always choose prosperity? The simple fact is that where technological change is the engine of economic growth, this means social change, and with change there are winners and losers. Thus existing elites may resist changes that make institutions more inclusive even if this means greater prosperity for all, because it will mean less prosperity for them.

 

vi. Protection of Property Rights

 

Countries differ in their economic success because of their different institutions – the rules influencing how the economy works and the incentives that motivate people. Crucial is private property rights which needs to be backed by the state.  In South Korea, people know that they will be rewarded for their efforts, in North Korea, there is no incentive to innovate and invest because the state will expropriate the benefits of any such initiatives. In order to develop a society needs to have “inclusive economic institutions.” A state that guarantees prosperity for the masses. Such a state provides a degree of infrastructure that is necessary for economic growth for example enforcing private property rights, contract rights for all, not just a minority, and providing education and physical infrastructure such as roads. Private enterprise uses and needs such institutions. What doesn’t work for development is extractive institutions – where the state is used to extract wealth from one subset of the population to another.

 

vii. Engines of Prosperity

 

The greatest engine of prosperity for almost all the advanced nations across the world is directly related to the quality of their education. If a country needs to be developed, it has to work hard on improving the education system. Education for the masses is crucial for innovation in an advanced technological world. This is what all developed nations have, and what many undeveloped nations lack. Education needs to be well financed and parents need to have the incentive to send their kids to school.

 

3. How will these ideas or lessons help you in a practical way, both in your daily personal life and in helping you to create a better world? If so, how?

 

This book is a detailed and research based full of information; it plays a great role in opening readers mind towards a new understanding of the global political economy. It emphasizes the need to work up on Political Space as a sustaining solution to reduce the economic inequality prevailing across nation states.

 

4. Quotes:  Are there any statements which the author made that particularly got your attention?  If so, please quote them and comment as to why they were important to you.

 

“If we want to understand the future as well as the past we cannot ignore them.”

 

5. Is there anything in the book that you do not understand or unclear about, or are their ideas which you disagree with and if so, why?

 

I can say No, as I share the views of the writers as really fitting to the exact situation in today’s world.

 

6. Did the book contain exercises for the reader to complete? If so, did you complete all the exercises and did you find them helpful?

 

No exercises.

 

7. Was there anything you read in the book that you would like to comment, that was not covered in the previous questions? If so, please comment.     

 

The book doesn’t seem to deal with the globalized context of the nation state today within a ‘world system’. It suggests that some kind of political infrastructure which allows a plurality of voices to be heard and wealth to be distributed so it benefits all is crucial to development – but it falls short of explaining how we might do this at a global, rather than a national level.

 

Please rate the book on the following questions on scale from 1 to 10. Ten is good and one is poor.

 

A.  How interesting was it to read?                          10
B.  How helpful were the contents?                         10

C.  How easy was it to understand?                        10
D.  Would you recommend it to others?                  10

E.  What is the overall rating you would give it?       10

 

 

 

Site Translator

What Our Students are Saying

Support IIGL

Get Involved











ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

- Global Resource Links         
- Job Openings
- Financial Aid Resources        
- Education Scholarships
- Online Universities                 
- IIGL Authors
- Youth Activist Links

Awards

 

Top Rated 2013.

 

Market Place